4. In what Piaget (1962) aptly described as sensorimotor practice play, (1) infants and (2) toddlers experiment with bodily sensation and motor movements, and with objects and people. By 6 months of age, infants have developed simple but consistent action schemes through trial and error and much practice. Infants use action schemes, such as pushing and grasping, to make interesting things happen. An infant will push a ball and make it roll in order to experience the sensation and pleasure of movement.
10. As children master new motor abilities, simple schemes are coordinated to create more complex play sequences. Older infants will push a ball, (3) crawl after it, and (4) retrieve it. When infants of 9 months are given an array of objects, they apply the same limited actions to all objects and see how they react. By pushing various objects, an infant learns that a ball rolls away, a (5) bile spins, and a (6) rattle makes noise. At about 12 months, objects bring forth more specific and differentiated actions. At this age, children will throw or kick a ball, but will shake rattles.
17.In a toddler's second year, there is growing (7) awareness of the functions of objects in the social world. The toddler puts a cup on a saucer and a spoon in her mouth. During the last half of this year, toddlers begin to represent their world symbolically as they transform and invent objects and roles. They may (8) stir an imaginary drink and offer it to someone (Bergen, 1988). Adults initiate and support such play. They may push a baby on a swing or cheer its first awkward steps. Children's responses regulate the adult's actions. If the swing is pushed too high, a child's cries will guide the adult toward a gentler approach. In interactions with adults such as peekaboo, children learn to take turns, act with others, and engage others in play.
The Adult Role In Children's Play
25.These general guidelines may be helpful:
Value children's play and talk to children about their play. Adults often say "I like the way you're working," but rarely, "I like the way you're playing."
Play with children when it is appropriate, especially during the early years. If adults pay attention to and engage in children's play, children get the message that play is valuable.
Create a playful atmosphere. It is important for adults to provide materials which children can explore and adapt in play.
When play appears to be stuck or unproductive, offer a new prop, suggest new roles, or provide new experiences, such as a field trip.
They should check materials and equipment for safety. Finally, adults should make children aware of any hidden risks in physical challenges they set for themselves.
1) Responder las siguientes preguntas, luego de leer el texto:
¿Cuál es la función del juego en los niños?
¿En qué consiste la etapa sensorimotora?
¿Qué sucede a los 6 meses de edad?
¿Qué sucede a los 9 meses de edad?
¿Qué sucede al año?
¿Qué sucede a los dos años?
¿Qué sucede a los dos años y medio?
¿Cuál es el rol de los adultos?
Mencionar los puntos más importantes de la guía del acompañamiento de los adultos en esta etapa.