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) Our Child Labour Free Zone (CLFZ)



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28) Our Child Labour Free Zone (CLFZ)





Period of implementation: Since 2008

Where: Uganda

Main focus: Social mobilization within a zone in a zero tolerance strategy against child labour

Lead organization: NGO Kids in Need (KIN) http://www.hivos.nl/Stop-Childlabour/What-we-do/Where-we-work/Our-Child-Labour-Free-Zones/Uganda-Kids-in-Need-KIN kinuganda@yahoo.com

Results: in the villages of Kitubulu in Katabi Sub County and Nakiwogo in Entebbe municipality, 1.000 children were withdrawn from work; many parents who are part of the saving groups now believe that poverty is not an excuse for keeping children out of school; Children were released back into school and the employers themselves became the champions of the drive to eliminate child labour at the places of work; also it has created opportunities for the employment of adults, thereby increasing household income; the CLFZ committee members in Kitubulu have developed by-laws that close down any person’s business if they are caught employing on a child who was withdrawn from child labour; in a primary school in Kitubulu, SCREAM methodology contributed to increased school enrolment from about 300 to 560 in only one term.


Context and objective:

Child Labour Free Zones are area based approaches that focuses on all children in the 5-15 years age group in an area. In this approach, the community is mobilised to track every out of school child, withdraw her/him from work and enrol her/him in to school. The schools are simultaneously strengthened to respect poor children and the first generation learners and ensure that no child drops out of school. With zero tolerance of school dropouts and child labour and every child being in school in an area a ‘child labour free zone’ is created. This requires whole hearted commitment and a global and national consensus among all those in policy making as well as in civil society that every child must enjoy his or her right to education and must not be subject to labour. The area based approach was first introduced by the Indian NGO MV foundation, using the community as a focal point, to create child labour free zones. (http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/LobbyingAndAdvocacyForChildLabourFreeZones.pdf)
Child labour exists in Uganda due to the rapid population growth, poverty, and unemployment, HIV/AIDS and orphan hood. About 2 million orphaned children in Uganda are victims of child labour. According to the country report Understanding Children’s Work in Uganda (2008), over 35% of the children in the 7-14 age group combine school and work. 3% of the children in the same age group do not attend school at all. About 1.8 million children in the age group 7 – 18 are in child labour. Children work on plantations (tobacco, coffee and tea), they are exploited in commercial sex, work in the informal sector and the streets, on the construction sites and crushing stones, those engaged in fishing, those who are trafficked and children affected by armed conflict. (http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/LobbyingAndAdvocacyForChildLabourFreeZones.pdf)
Since 2008, KIN has been implementing the Child Labour Free Zone (CLFZ) programme in 3 villages of Uganda: Kitubulu and Nakiwogo (Entebbe Wakiso district) and Doho Rice Scheme (Eastern Uganda Butaleja district). KIN chose Kitubulu and Nakiwogo, where many children had become drug addicts as a result of child labour and Doho Rice Scheme, where many children had become employees of the rice scheme instead of going to school.
Methodology:

Different members of the community - including teachers, employers, local leaders, religious leaders and parents - make a Child Labour Free Zone-committee. Committee members are trained and their capacity strengthened to enable them address and handle cases of child abuse in the community. They closely monitor the area to see that no more children are engaged in child labour. KIN embarked on community conversations, an innovative approach of community mobilisation and dialogue on child labour issues within the community. They have contributed to increased awareness about child labour and have changed norms about child labour in the pilot project areas.



Another one of KIN’s key child labour strategies include the creation of saving groups and the empowering of parents or guardians through income generating activities and the provision of inputs in kind to extremely poor families. The programme was intended to assist adults to generate income and set up saving schemes from which they may borrow to meet household livelihood needs. This enabled the vulnerable households to save and acquire loans from the groups or to expand their small businesses. This is one of the successful sustainable measures that have helped parents to keep children in school without external support. KIN also advocate against the employment of children and for the improvement of working conditions for adults.

To prevent children from dropping out of school, KIN introduced and trained both children and teachers in SCREAM methodology: it encourages children’s participation in different fields. SCREAM has contributed to increased school enrolment and empowered the children and the youths to become change agents in fighting child labour. Also, scholastic materials were provided for children from vulnerable households within the CLFZ. Life skills and vocational training programme was developed to equip children above minimum age of employment, with the tools and skills to engage in productive employment opportunities.

Lessons learned:

The coverage of the programme in both rural and urban areas shows an acknowledgement that child labour affects both urban and rural children and should be abolished in both areas. Targeting both areas and adapting the programme to the different needs and environments of the locations, has widened the reach and impact of the CLFZ programme in Uganda. Besides, the committee and the youth activists (as role models) have played a crucial role in identifying working children and preventing others from joining the work force.
Challenges: It is recognised within the Education For All (EFA) movement that the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of universal primary education by 2015 will be missed unless there is a determined effort to reach the hardest to reach children, including those in child labour. It is also acknowledged that there is a close relationship between efforts to promote education for all children and efforts to tackle the problem of child labour. Any lasting solution to the issue of child labour must take a combined and integrated approach in addressing the problem. (http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/LobbyingAndAdvocacyForChildLabourFreeZones.pdf)

Next Steps: the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development (MGLSD) supports KIN to implement the CLFZ approach as a pilot strategy in collaboration with the ILO/IPEC in various districts. Its policy framework provides an opportunity for replicating the child labour free zone model in other parts of the country. (http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/LobbyingAndAdvocacyForChildLabourFreeZones.pdf)



29) From bondage to school



Period of implementation: 2008 - ongoing

Where: India

Main focus: Education and social mobilization

Lead organization: Department of Labour and Employment of the Government of Tamil Nadu, India website: http://www.tn.gov.in/department/18

Results: Increased awareness within Employers Association, local schools, the Village Education Committee (VEC) and the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) – a central government scheme on Education for All to understand the situation of migrant children; 424 children educated for three months with transfer certificates for enrollment in regular schools in the home communities, of whom 400 children were enrolled in regular schools; 32 Bridge Course Centres, in which 841 children (440 boys and 401 girls) are studying, are being run in the brick kilns by the SSA, with some 155 children enrolled in regular schools near the brick kilns.


Context and objective: “Promoting Decent Work in Brick Kilns” started as a pilot project in Kanchipuram District of Tamil Nadu in India, and has been operational since July 2008. The Project was jointly initiated by the Ministry of Labour and Employment of the Government of India and the ILO, and is implemented in collaboration with the Department of Labour and Employment of the Government of Tamil Nadu. The partners of the project include the Joint Action Forum of Trade Unions (JAFTU), the Chengalpattu Area Brick Manufacturers Association (CABMA) and government agencies. The ultimate beneficiaries are 12,000 men and women workers and their children, of which over 90% are migrants coming from other parts of Tamil Nadu.
The project aims to reduce brick workers’ vulnerability to bonded labour, and was designed in response to the needs expressed by the various stakeholders. Most of the workers come from families that have worked in brick kilns in different parts of the State, many of whom are not aware of their rights or the welfare measures the State and Central governments offer them. The vicious cycle of debt begins when these workers take loans at exorbitant interest rates from moneylenders in and around their villages in order to meet their financial needs for ceremonies and health care. Lack of income generating assets, adequate local employment opportunities and access to micro-credit from formal financial institutions compels them to borrow from moneylenders. In order to repay these loans, families resort to securing huge advances from labour agents by pledging their labour for the next season of brick production.

The workers who have taken advances migrate to the brick kilns in January each year, to live and work until July. They work as family units for long hours to repay the advance. The wages are often lower than the prescribed minimum.


A rapid appraisal study, commissioned by the ILO, and a number of consultative meetings with the stakeholders revealed that more than 80% of the children who migrate with their parents to brick kilns did not go to school for the following reasons:

  • Lack of interest among parents and children in education;

  • Parents receive a larger advance from the employers by counting their children as working members in the family. The advance obligates the families to engage the children in order to produce more bricks to repay the advance;

  • Distance of regular schools from brick kilns and lack of transit schools nearby;

  • Some children have to take care of younger siblings (which enables the mother to work without interruption);

  • Day care centres run by the government are located too far away from the • brick kilns;

  • Employers are concerned with productivity and the recovery of the advance, whether the bricks are produced by adults or children does not directly concern them.


Methodology: The Project adopts a multi-pronged strategy to address all the issues concerning vulnerability of workers, including withdrawal of children from work and ensuring their right to education.
Following a request for technical support from ILO by the Employers’ Association (CABMA) to collect data on out-of-school children in brick kilns, a survey was designed in consultation with the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) – a central government scheme on Education for All – and local literacy volunteers were trained in data collection. About 600 out-of-school children, aged 6-14, were identified in the 50 brick kilns.
In sequence, the ILO Project team arranged for a consultation meeting of the employers and SSA officials to discuss child labour issues and to explore solutions regarding the education of these children. A team comprised of SSA educators, Village Education Committee (VEC) members, local government school teachers and the field staff of CABMA met the parents in brick kilns and motivated them to send their children to schools.
SSA provided Rs.1,000 per month for the salary of literacy volunteers, and the ILO provided an additional Rs.1,000 per month. CABMA contributed by providing a space in which to conduct the classes and by meeting the midday meal expenses. CABMA also conducted evening classes in 32 brick kilns to provide supplementary education to 962 children for five months. In total, Rs.384,770 (approximately $8,300 US) was contributed by the Employers’ Association in 2009 towards the education of children.
The World Day Against Child Labour was observed by the SSA and Employers Association with the support of the ILO on 12 June 2009. A Children’s rally, workshop and talent competitions were conducted in order to engage the children. Trade unions, Employer Association representatives, elected local representatives and Education Department officials also participated.
Lessons learned: The implementation process of this initiative shows that to ensure success, it is key to target the economic sectors that engage child labour, involve all stakeholders – including employers and the recruiters –, and promote intensive awareness-raising and motivation of stakeholder groups. Lessons learned also show that it is essential that Law enforcement and sensitization of employers and recruiting agents go hand in hand.

It has also proven to be fruitful to apply an approach of convergence of existing schemes and pooling of resources from the employers, as both promotes sustainability.

Moreover, collective action and contribution by the Employers’ Association, local government school teachers, village education committees, SSA and enforcement officials is required in both source and destination areas for the successful reduction of child labour.
Challenges: As mentioned above, many workers (families and their children) are not aware of their rights or the welfare measures the State and Central governments offer them. To overcome such challenges, intensive awareness-raising efforts have been carried out with a large range of stakeholders. Furthermore, to surpass the challenge of reaching hitherto unreached poor migrant children, advocacy strategies have been applied with the aim to promote a change of the rules of central government schemes, such as the SSA.
Next steps: Inspired by the success of the pilot experience, SSA is considering replicating the approach in brick kilns throughout Tamil Nadu, which are approximately 3,000 in number. The ILO Project team has shared their experiences, sparking the interest of stakeholders in Andhra Pradesh, who now wish to replicate the approach in brick kilns, quarries and stone crushers operating in their state. This new project is currently under preparation.

30) Programa Atenção Redobrada


Período de implementação: Desde 2011

Onde: Brasil

Área de atuação: Mobilização social e proteção de crianças e adolescentes trabalhadoras atividades de serviços durante grandes eventos

Organização responsável: Secretaria da Criança e da Juventude de Pernambuco (SCJ)

website: www.scj.pe.gov.br

Resultados: Mais de 1500 crianças e adolescentes atendidos, mais de 1 milhão de kits de informação educativa distribuídos, e cerca de 400 profissionais sensibilizados para o tema


Contexto e objetivos:

Com um aumento de 4,5% de seu produto interno bruto (PIB), em 2011, e uma consagrada tradição na promoção de grandes eventos culturais em regiões distintas no interior do estado, Pernambuco é um dos estados brasileiros que assiste ao paradoxo entre o aumento do emprego, da renda e dos bens materiais em contraposição com o aumento do trabalho infantil. Com a criação da Secretaria Estadual da Criança e da Juventude de Pernambuco - SCJ, em 2011 (Lei nº 14.264 de 06/01/2011), o Governo de Pernambuco estabeleceu a missão de defender e promover a garantia dos direitos das crianças, adolescentes e dos jovens pernambucanos, especificamente, cuidando da faixa etária que é compreendida entre 0 a 29 anos.

Assim foi iniciada uma programação sistemática e focada em eventos de grande concentração de pessoas, intitulada Programa Atenção Redobrada, cujo principal objetivo é contribuir para o fortalecimento e integração do Sistema de Garantia de Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente, por meio de ações de Informação/Capacitação/Formação, Mobilização e Enfrentamento às violações dos Direitos de crianças e adolescentes. Nas festividades juninas de São João de Caruaru, em 2011, se inaugurou o programa, em um evento com público superior a 1,5 milhão de pessoas, R$ 180 milhões de reais movimentados, gerando 10 mil empregos temporários.

Metodologia:

O Programa Atenção Redobrada atua através da sensibilização e desenvolvimento de Espaços de Proteção, bem como da articulação e do fortalecimento do Sistema de Garantia de Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente, de forma continuada e sistemática. O Governo do Estado de Pernambuco oferece apoio técnico e financeiro aos municípios, contribuindo com o monitoramento do processo desenvolvido e na mobilização e articulação dos atores locais. Os municípios são responsáveis pela execução direta do Programa, desde a mobilização inicial, articulação e participação em de reuniões, construção da proposta de atuação em conjunto com a Secretaria da Criança e da Juventude do Estado, seleção de educadores, mapeamento de parceiros e montagem dos espaços de proteção.

Por ocasião de grandes eventos, são realizadas ações de sensibilização junto ao público em geral e aos comerciantes locais, com distribuição de material informativo (banners, cartazes, cartilhas, adesivos), implantação de um espaço de proteção, para onde são encaminhadas as crianças e adolescentes encontradas junto aos pais e mães que estavam trabalhando no evento e/ou em situação de vulnerabilidade (ex.: nas ruas). Neste espaço, crianças e adolescentes participam de oficinas de percussão, pintura de rosto, contação de histórias etc. Ao fim dos trabalhos nos eventos, os parceiros avaliam os resultados e planejam futuras ações. Um relatório geral é produzido e entregue ao Governo do Estado/Secretaria da Criança e da Juventude-SCJ, ao final de cada ano.
Lições Aprendidas: Houve fortalecimento na integração das políticas públicas e da rede de proteção à criança e do adolescente no que se refere à exploração sexual e do trabalho infantil, contudo ainda é necessário maior fortalecimento e apoio do Sistema de Garantia de Direitos. A ampla divulgação junto à sociedade sobre as ações preventivas e protetivas dirigidas à criança e ao adolescente gerou boa receptividade das ações do programa por parte da população e comerciantes.
Desafios: É necessário mais tempo para definir a localização do espaço de proteção que, algumas vezes, foi montado ao lado do ponto de apoio de outros serviços. Falta sensibilização da população quanto aos direitos da criança e do adolescente e falta de compromisso de pais e mães com seus filhos e filhas. A coleta de dados é prejudicada pelo fornecimento de dados imprecisos ou até mesmo inexistentes, pois muitas pessoas negam-se a contribuir com os sensibilizadores. A inexistência de uma estrutura permanente para o encaminhamento das crianças foi sentida e cobrada por alguns usuarios.
Próximos Passos: Antes restrita às feiras semanais, o Programa Atenção Redobrada passou a ser realizado em grandes eventos e, agora, desdobra-se para as áreas com maior incidência de crianças e adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social, como àquelas expostas à situações de exploração sexual ou do trabalho infantil.

31) Communities and private sector join hands to address child labour

Period of implementation: 2009-2010

Where: Zambia

Main focus: Social Protection and Private Sector Partnership

Lead organization: the Livingstone Anglican Children’s Project

website: http://www.anglicanalliance.org/projects/project/73 email: lacpzambia@gmail.com



Results: The structures created and those strengthened have facilitated community participation in the programme, and through them the message of the importance of children’s education is being spread in the communities; 300 children withdrawn from child labour being integrated into the government schools; the affected local communities actively participate in the programme activities such as identification of beneficiaries, community awareness programmes, and participation in the ongoing programme-update meetings; a suitable financial product was created for the target beneficiaries with agreements with the banks to offer savings accounts with no ledger fees and, for all accounts opened through LACP, to pay for the photos needed to open one.


Context and objective: The Livingstone District of southern Zambia has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the country (estimated at 31.5%). Children are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Many children are left to fend for themselves, often due to the death of their parents from AIDS. A major consequence of this is that children are forced into child labour at the expense of going to school. It has also been observed that extended families can be overwhelmed by the sheer number of orphans to be cared for. All of these factors increase the general poverty levels in the community, making it difficult to break the cycle of poverty and HIV/AIDS.
With the aims at contributing to the elimination of HIV/AIDS induced child labour in Zambia, the Livingstone Anglican Children’s Project (LACP) has through its child labour programme (initiated in 2009) embarked on strengthening district, community and project structures to address child labour. It has also launched innovative initiatives to support care givers through private partnerships, as well as the introduction of driving skills as a new training area for children withdrawn from child labour.
The child labour programme of LACP forms part of the global Tackling Child Labour Through Education programme (TACKLE), which was initiated in 2008, following the signature of a Partnership Protocol Agreement between the Zambian Government, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the European Commission (EC),
Methodology: Realising that no community programme can succeed without the use of community members, LACP strengthened its own structure and created and encouraged the development of the community child labour committees. After putting the structures in place, training was conducted to support them in their role.
During the training sessions, discussions occurred among the participants on how to best save resources in order to sustain the programme. The beneficiaries agreed on the idea of depositing money in the bank on a regular basis, and all walked home from the training session in order to use their transportation allowance to open the bank accounts.
LACP approached a local bank to request a special savings facility to be accorded to the adult beneficiaries of the programme. A letter was also sent to the bank, informing them about the vision of the group and explaining that the bank’s current financial services offered were not accessible for small businesses. Through discussion regarding corporate social responsibility and through commendable negotiation, an agreement was made for a savings scheme for the target beneficiaries of the income generating activities group. The savings scheme with a local bank thus became an innovative measure for supporting family and community livelihoods.
Lessons learned: Meaningful involvement of communities is always important, not only when there is a particular event related to a programme, as this will make it possible for the communities themselves to be part and parcel of the programme and make it easier for them to continue with the initiative after external support has been withdrawn. District and community child labour committees that make community members leaders in the process of intervention are especially helpful.
Challenges: One key challenge consist in getting private sector actors on board to support initiatives such as this. Two factors that have proven to be key to progress are good negotiation skills and clear messages in terms of what kind of benefits the engagement will bring about for the corporations meanwhile meeting the needs of the community.
Next steps: Based on the involvement and engagement of the local communities and authorities, there is evident ownership of the process and an interest in longer-term benefits for the beneficiaries. The opportunity that has been explored with the private sector (i.e. the bank) to indirectly support children’s education and welfare is praiseworthy, being an important intervention for both prevention and withdrawal of children from child labour and is a good example of working with local institutions to support child labour programmes. Considering the challenge of maintaining support for children’s education without external assistance, the savings scheme was a valuable development that will go a long way in contributing to the sustainability of the project and supporting children’s education after the conclusion of the action programme.


32) Programa de Prevenção e Eliminação da Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes na Fronteira Argentina/Brasil/Paraguai (ESCI)


Período de implementação: 2001 a 2005.

Onde: Municípios de Puerto Iguazú (Argentina), Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil) e Ciudad del Este (Paraguai)

Área de atuação: Proteção social, educação e treinamento, legislação e fiscalização contra a exploração sexual comercial em regiões de fronteiras transnacionais

Organização: Ministérios do Trabalho e\ou Desenvolvimento Social dos governos do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguay website para maiores detalhes: http://www.oit.org.br/node/338

Resultados: Ampliação da oferta de cursos de profissionalização, reinserção escolar, assistência médica e legal e encaminhamento ao mercado de trabalho, beneficiando centenas de famílias; maior incidência na busca de ajuda aos Centros de Referência para a recuperação das crianças vitimizadas pela exploração sexual comercial, e pelos próprios agressores em busca de tratamento e apoio especializado; desmantelamento de redes criminosas associadas à exploração comercial e sexual de crianças; investigação criminal de políticos, empresários e policiais suspeitos de estarem envolvidos nessas atividades ilícitas; celebração de termo de compromisso entre proprietários de hotéis e a Superintendência Regional do Trabalho para combater a exploração sexual de menores; ratificação pelo

Paraguai da convenção 138 da OIT sobre a idade mínima




Contexto e objetivos:

A região da tríplice frontera é marcada pela presença do crime organizado e do tráfico internacional de drogas, armas e seres humanos; observa-se, também, a tendência de criminalização das migrações em geral, e da região da tríplice fronteira, em particular.

Os direitos das crianças na região fronteiriça entre Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai são muitas vezes violados. Além da exploração sexual comercial, há o tráfico de crianças e adolescentes relacionados a outros fins como trabalho escravo e tráfico de órgãos e o uso desses como transporte para armas, drogas e mercadorias contrabandeadas.

O Programa de Prevenção e Eliminação da Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes na Fronteira Argentina/Brasil/Paraguai (ESCI) surgiu nesse cenário com os objetivos de: identificar lacunas legais e propor harmonizações entre os três países; contribuir na obtenção e análise de informações confiáveis e relevantes sobre a exploração sexual comercial de crianças e adolescentes; fortalecer as instituições públicas e privadas na formulação e implementação de ações para eliminar o problema; proporcionar atenção nas áreas de saúde, educação, apoio psicossocial e jurídico a crianças e adolescentes sexualmente exploradas; e contribuir na formulação de políticas e mecanismos de prevenção.



Metodologia:

A OIT buscou atuar mediante o estímulo ao diálogo entre os três países para possíveis soluções, dando especial atenção a ações preventivas, principalmente com os irmãos e irmãs dos meninos e meninas explorados sexualmente.

Além disso, a OIT e os seus parceiros trabalharam diretamente com governantes locais e com a sociedade civil organizada, de forma a estabelecer processos mútuos de conhecimento, trocas de experiências e ações conjuntas.

Em linhas gerais, o Programa criou uma rede interinstitucional para identificar, afastar e oferecer atenção integral às crianças e adolescentes nesta situação. O programa também contou com processos de esclarecimento social, responsabilização e punição dos autores, reinserção social das crianças e adolescentes marginalizados e instalação de uma cultura de prevenção e de vigilância social.



Lições Aprendidas: Conscientização de que é possível deslocar o Estado de sua centralidade para que a sociedade possa atuar considerando os recursos disponíveis, atuais e potenciais; conclusão de que a exploração sexual comercial de crianças e adolescentes é uma atividade amplamente atrelada ao crime transnacional organizado e à pobreza, sendo necessária, portanto, uma maior cooperação entre Brasil, Paraguai e Argentina para encontrarem soluções e meios de prevenção conjuntos e para combaterem as causas desse crime; importância da criação e da atuação de redes de proteção que envolvam  governos, sociedade civil e organismos internacionais para mudar a realidade e oferecer proteção a todos os menores da Tríplice Fronteira.

Desafios: inexistência de leis nacionais específicas contra a exploração humana e maneiras eficientes de punir os envolvidos com essa prática, principalmente aliciadores e “clientes”; impecilhos para a investigação dos crimes e a punição dos seus responsáveis, dada a falta de promotores e juízes especializados; ausência de estatísticas precisas relacionadas ao problema, o que dificultou sua mensuração e combate; dificuldades relacionadas ao controle de fronteiras, visto o enorme número de pessoas que as atravessam todos os dias; silêncio por parte das vítimas de exploração sexual, que muitas vezes não denunciavam os abusos sofridos para as autoridades, seja por medo da reação dos exploradores ou por vergonha.

Próximos passos: A Região da Tríplice Fronteira, em Ciudad del Este (Paraguai), Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil) e Puerto Iguazú (Argentina) tem hoje um marco de humanidade, solidariedade e desenvolvimento na direção de um futuro melhor, mais justo e harmônico para estas e para as futuras gerações de crianças e adolescentes. Além disso, vale mencionar a proposta da OIT para facilitar o atuação na área da punição, que consiste na assinatura de um acordo trilateral entre Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai. Além da assistência jurídica mútua em matéria penal, o acordo permitiria a coordenação de políticas públicas nas áreas de assistência social, saúde, educação e direitos humanos.
33) Curso Online – A Escola no Combate ao Trabalho Infantil (ECTI)


Período de implementação: Desde 2012

Onde: Brasil

Área de atuação: Aumento de capacidades nos sistemas educativos para enfrentamento ao trabalho infantil

Organização: Fundação Telefônica Brasil website: www.promenino.org.br/ecti

Resultados: 6.500 pessoas participam do curso por semestre, 55% são profissionais da rede municipal de ensino e 36% da rede estadual; para 72% dos participantes, o curso mudou totalmente a forma de ver o fenômeno do trabalho infantil; 24,2% dos participantes passaram a perceber o seu papel como defensores de direitos; 23,7%, perceberam que conheciam pouco do ECA e dos seus dispositivos legais; 22,9%, passaram a entender a importância de tratar da temática nas suas aulas e/ou atividades.


Contexto e objetivos:

Em 2007, com a promulgação da lei 11.525/07, que incluiu no currículo do ensino fundamental conteúdos que tratem dos direitos da criança e do adolescente, professores usuários da Rede Pró-menino, em função de outros projetos de capacitação à distância que eram realizados à época, buscaram na Fundação Telefônica e na Rede Pró-menino um apoio para implantarem o ensino do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA) nas escolas.

A Fundação Telefônica Brasil decidiu, então, estruturar um curso à distância sobre o ECA para professores e coordenadores pedagógicos. Entre 2009 e 2011, foram desenvolvidas cinco turmas desse curso on-line. Em 2012, acrescentaram-se conteúdos referentes ao combate ao trabalho infantil, o que deu origen ao “A Escola no Combate ao Trabalho Infantil” (ECTI). Os seus objetivos específicos são a criação e ampliação de uma cultura de direitos, em oposição à aceitação cultural que o trabalho infantil encontra no país; a capacitação dos educadores para discutir questões relacionadas ao trabalho infantil; o incentivo à prática do combate ao trabalho infantil por meio de ações em rede; e o fomento à participação de educadores e alunos na Rede Pró-Menino.

A rede Promenino Fundação Telefônica é uma iniciativa da Fundação Telefônica/Vivo que busca contribuir para a garantia dos direitos de crianças e adolescentes e combater a exploração do trabalho infantil com o uso das novas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação (TICs), mobilizando pessoas, diseminando informações e realizando capacitações.



Metodologia:

As atividades são realizadas através do ensino à distância (EaD) por meio das comunidades virtuais de aprendizagem da Rede Pró-Menino. O curso é composto por seis módulos que objetivam que os educadores participantes se transformem em produtores de material sobre o tema, compartilhando os materiais, experiências e dúvidas tanto na plataforma de educação à distância como na Rede Pró-Menino, em que poderão interagir com internautas em geral. São utilizados diversos recursos de ensino a distância e de tecnologia da informação – como chats, fóruns, textos de apoio, webtransmissões, vídeo-aulas etc, a partir do conceito de knowledge on demand, que permite que os educadores desenvolvam seu processo de formação em horários flexíveis e adequados às suas rotinas. Oprograma de formação utiliza as seguintes estratégias de atuação: i) irrigação: quando o rede disponibiliza informações para o usuário; ii) participação: quando o internauta se converte em produtor do conhecimento e compartilha suas experiências locais; iii) interação: com a promoção da interconexão de usuário com usuário. A carga horária total do curso é de 60 horas.



Lições Aprendidas: Os números e perfil dos participantes mostram a necessidade e importância da busca de parcerias com as redes municipal e estadual de educação. A Rede Municipal, apesar de mais pulverizada e de difícil acesso por conta da distribuição geográfica traz bons resultados quando atingida. A Rede Estadual demonstrou uma maior burocracia e consequente demora no contato com os professores.

Desafios: Ainda existe resistência à ampliação da visão do professor com relação à necessidade da implantação de uma cultura de direitos na escola, à importância do ECA e ao papel da escola e do professor na defesa e garantia dos direitos da criança e do adolescente. Além disso, a experiência demonstrou a dificuldade de integração da escola com a comunidade e a família, já que apenas 2,3% das atividades envolveram a comunidade como um todo ou a família.

Próximos passos: Dados mostram o potencial do curso para levar novos usuários à Rede Pró-Menino, uma vez que todos os inscritos no curso são cadastrados também na Rede. Além das postagens realizadas na Rede Pró-Menino, foram recebidos cerca de 40 trabalhos de participantes, relatando as atividades que fizeram em sala de aula com seus alunos. A proposta é que estes trabalhos sejam analisados e possam se transformar em exemplos de atividades para as próximas turmas.
34) Campanha “É da Nossa Conta! Sem Trabalho Infantil e pelo Trabalho Adolescente Protegido”


Período de implementação: Desde 2012 (campanha anual)

Onde: Brasil

Área de atuação: Mobilização social contra o trabalho infantil e pela proteção ao adolescente trabalhador

Organização: Fundação Telefônica Brasil websites: www.promenino.org.br

http://www.promenino.org.br/CampanhaEdaNossaConta/Acampanha/tabid/339/Default.aspx



Resultados: 1.050.000 pessoas alcançadas em todo o Brasil, presencial e virtualmente, sendo 65 mil colaboradores da empresa de serviços de telefonia Telefônica; mais de 25 milhões de pessoas sensibilizadas nas redes sociais; 91% dos entrevistados no proceso de avaliação afirmaram que a campanha “É da nossa conta!” contribuiu para uma melhor compreensão do problema trabalho infantil; 75,4% afirmaram que a partir da campanha passaram a identificar situações de trabalho infantil ao seu redor; e 82,1% consideraram que a campanha foi efetiva no alerta à sociedade sobre o trabalho infantil


Contexto e objetivos:

Nas duas últimas décadas o Brasil avançou muito no enfrentamento ao trabalho infantil. Esse avanço se deve a políticas nacionais como o PETI e mais recentemente o Bolsa Família, e ao trabalho inestimável de milhares de organizações brasileiras que diariamente defendem e garantem os direitos da criança e do adolescente. Entretanto, o trabalho infantil que persiste é mais difícil de ser erradicado: o trabalho infantil no campo, nas propriedades rurais, o trabalho infantil doméstico, o trabalho infantil nas redes de tráfico e exploração sexual, o trabalho informal e suas variações. Novas formas de enfrentamento são necessárias.

Isso se deve, em parte, ao fato de o trabalho infantil ser visto como um valor, ou seja, ser culturalmente aceito e desejado como uma forma de afastar o ócio e a criminalidade, especialmente da criança e adolescente pobres.

Para combater de maneira eficaz o trabalho infantil torna-se necessário lidar com esse imaginário favorável da opinião pública. Assim, nasceu a campanha colaborativa “É da nossa conta! Sem Trabalho Infantil e pelo Trabalho Adolescente Protegido”, em co-realização entre OIT e UNICEF. O objetivo geral da campanha é promover a visibilidade ao tema do trabalho infantil e adolescente, pautando a agenda das redes sociais e midias locais, e envolvendo novos atores, adolescentes e jovens.


Metodologia:

Para o processo de criação da campanha foi organizado o workshop “Como Mobilizar a Sociedade Contra o Trabalho Infantil”, em 2012, com a participação de 60 pessoas. Em seguida, foi organizada uma reunião de planejamento da campanha, com a participação de 30 pessoas. Assim nasceu a campanha “É da Nossa Conta”, composta das seguintes estratégias: ação interna (com colaboradores do Grupo Telefônica – Vivo), ação web: redes sociais e blogs, ação web: Rede Promenino, ação externa – outros meios e presencial, divulgação. A estratégia da campanha contou com quatro passos para estimular o engajamento público:



  1. Reconheça: situações de trabalho infantil e adolescente a sua volta;

  2. Questione: o contexto em que acontece trabalho infantil e adolescente;

  3. Descubra: as ações cotidianas que estão ao seu alcance para ajudar a erradicar o trabalho infantil e adolescente;

  4. Compartilhe: atitudes, pensamentos e informações para expandir a campanha.

As peças de comunicação utilizadas foram: cartazes, cartilhas, adesivos, encarte Viração, fitinha do Setor do Bonfim com mensagem da Campanha, vídeos, edição especial do gibi da Turma da Mônica.
Lições Aprendidas: No processo de criação da Campanha, pessoas e organizações que conhecem o problema e pessoas que não conhecem devem estar presentes, pois assim aumentam a compreensão que possuem sobre o problema e a forma como ele é percebido pelos mais diversos segmentos da sociedade. O produto resultante tem maior potencial de impacto.
Desafios: A ampliação do conhecimento e a mudança de opinião sobre o tema pelos impactados pela Campanha.
Próximos passos: A metodologia de co-criação adotada para a construção da Campanha pode ser reproduzida para solução de qualquer outra questão complexa. Outro ponto importante é a ampliação do uso da força das mídias sociais (como facebook e twitter) como ferramenta de mobilização da opinião pública para as causas sociais.

35) Child Labour monitoring system


Period of implementation: 2004

Where: Tanzania

Main focus: Strengthining and descentralization of policy and monitoring system

Lead organization: Ministry of Labour and Employment

Website: www.kazi.go.tz E-mail: ps@kazi.go.tz



Results: National Action Plan (NAP) and child labour monitoring system (CLMS) for the elimination of worst forms of child labour adopted; public budget allocation has started in the district of Urambo in support for increased access of vulnerable children to secondary schools and vocational training centres.


Context and objective: Before the beginning of the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) in the Urambo district of the Tabora region in Tanzania, there was no child labour monitoring system (CLMS) in place. As part of the Project’s initial activities in 2004, CLMS was introduced for the purpose of identifying and providing victims of child labour with educational services. The IPEC Project, in collaboration with the tripartite partners, created a structure for monitoring child labour by forming the first Village Child Labour Committee (VCLC), District Child Labour Sub committee (DCLSC), District Child Labour Coordinator, National Child Labour Coordinator (NCLC) and the National Inter-sectoral Coordination Committee (NISCC), which was represented by various key actors from different ministries.
Methodology: Action took place at both the local and national levels. At the local level, key actors in local government districts were made aware of CLMS, data collectors were trained and key additional indicators were identified in order to integrate CLMS into the local government database. VCLC members in Urambo district were involved in quarterly observation of tobacco farms with a view of identifying boys and girls involved in child labour on tobacco farms. After identification, children were removed from labour by the VCLC, in collaboration with implementing agencies and the district council, and referred to vocational centres in Urambo district and Tabora region for appropriate skills training. Copies of the information on working children were also submitted to the District Child Labour Coordinator’s office for documentation and analysis.
Lessons learned: It was noticed that some of the Village Child Labour Committees (VCLCs) members were not very effective in participating in the monitoring of child labour activities in their respective areas. It was further noted that there was a high demand for incentives from some of the VCLCs, which became a key determinant for participation of the VCLCs in the child labour monitoring system (CLMS) programme. These kind of factors thus need to be taken into consideration in future initiatives and alternative ways to provide the necessary capacity building, training, skills, tools and equipment for data collection for mainstreaming and scaling-up CLMS need to be explored.
Lessons learned also demonstrates the importance of ensuring a strong and regular linkage between district and national levels of government to further promote adequate coordination, monitoring and follow up across different levels of government.
Challenges: Several components of the NAP have yet to be mainstreamed at either the district or national levels into the policies of ministries other than the Ministry of Labour and solicit resource allocations need to be secured from individual ministries such as the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Local Government and the Ministry of Finance.
Next steps: In terms of the implementation of the National Action Plan (NAP), some elements of the mainstreaming of the NAP are on-going through various child labour interventions in 16 districts out of the 128 districts. These elements include the allocation of resources for child labour interventions at district level, putting in place district vulnerability database systems to incorporate CLMS into district development plans, adoption of bylaws covering elimination of child labour and establishment of DCLCs and their representation in the District Council Management Teams. There is a potential for quickly integrating CLMS into local governance institutions as a result of the effort by the government to accelerate the decentralization process through institutional capacity building for local government operations.
In Tanzania the elimination of child labour is currently the third priority of the Decent Work Country Programme (DWCP) and is also featured in both the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction (MKUKUTA) and the Strategy for Poverty Reduction (MKUZA). Any future national initiative will be included under Pillar III and will work within existing government structures and processes. Technical support will come from the ILO Dar es Salaam Office. The main counterpart for the Project will be the child labour units in the Ministry of Labour on the mainland and the Ministry of Labour in Zanzibar. Progress regarding the Project will be reported to the National Inter-Sectoral Coordination Committee (NISCC), which is the government’s national child labour coordination body.

36) Coalition against child labour in zimbabwe (CACLAZ)


Period of implementation: Since 2005

Where: Zimbabwe

Main focus: Social mobilization and education against child labour

Lead organization: Coalition Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe (CACLAZ) website: http://www.kubatana.net/html/sectors/coa002.asp?sector=LAB&year=2008&range_start=1

email: caclaz@yahoo.com



Results: Increased awareness and sense of ownership among the community; 350 children re-integrated into school.


Context and objective: According to a 2010 UNICEF report, 13% of Zimbabwean children are engaged in child labour which the International Labour Organization (ILO) defines as work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful to children and that interferes with their schooling. Zimbabwe’s Labour Act prohibits employers from hiring a person under 18 to perform hazardous work and the Children’s Act makes it an offence to exploit children through employment. However, a study of child labour in Zimbabwe conducted by the Ministry of Labour together with international and local partners including ILO and UNICEF, released in June 2011, concluded that “the prevalence of the worst forms of child labour is on the rise and cause for concern." The report identified poverty as the main driver of children being employed, along with “the breakdown of the family unit due to HIV and AIDS, as well as the inadequacy of the social services delivery system.”

According to UNICEF, of Zimbabwe's 1.3 million orphans, some 100,000 are living on their own in child-headed households. Many such children are forced to leave school and find work as street vendors or labourers on tobacco farms, tea and sugar plantations, and in mines in order to support younger siblings. Conditions for children working on farms were "particularly difficult", according to the report, as children were often exposed to bad weather, dangerous chemicals and the use of heavy machinery. Customs of premature wedding has also resulted in elevated drop-out rates amongst young girls, often as an effect of their engagement in child labour in the homes of their husbands. The Coalition against Child Labour in Zimbabwe (CACLAZ) was started in 2005 by labour unions and a child rights organization seeking to bring about a coordinated approach in dealing with the twin problems of child labour and low school attendance.


Methodology: CACLAZ was formed as a lobby and advocacy platform to raise the issues of child labour on to the national agenda in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe, through CACLAZ, is working towards the elimination of child labour through the Child Labour Free Zone concept. Since 2007 CACLAZ has been tackling child labour in communities of the selected Child Labour Free Zones (CLFZ). In 2010, CACLAZ formed part of an international mission to India of a series of organizations from different African countries, including Zimbabwe, Uganda, Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia and Morocco, where these organizations got to see and learn from concrete examples of successful implementation of the area-based approach against child labour.

The key elements of the CLFZ concept in Zimbabwe are concentrated around the following:



  • Incubation Centres: as transitional camps or short-term (6-18 months) camps. Former child labourers, who have been out of the formal school system for prolonged periods, get orientation before being re-integrated into the formal education system.

  • School infrastructural development: the community is mobilized to build classrooms to replace the make-shift ones and hence improve the schooling environment.

  • School fees and uniform assistance: strategic partnerships with organisations which are assisting children of poor families, particularly HIV/AIDS orphans, to pay school fees and purchase uniforms as well as to mobilize the community to unlock resources to support their children.

  • Investment in social capital: To raise community awareness through School Development Committees, Ward Child Protection Committees, School Based Child Protection Committees and Junior School Based Counseling Clubs.

  • Campaign against early marriages: partnership with the Police’s Victims’ Friendly Unit to enforce the legal prohibition of early child marriages (and child exploitation) and encouraged schools to monitor the attendance of children at risk and report any cases of child marriages to the Police.

  • Access to enabling documentation: assistance to children in the CLFZ who do not yet have birth certificate documents to obtain them.


Lessons learned: The structure of the coalition has proven to be one of the key factors for success and strength of the CLFZ. The members have complemented each other’s efforts, and the tripartite arrangement of the Progressive Teachers’Union of Zimbabwe (PTUZ), the General Agricultural Plantation Workers Union of Zimbabwe (GAPWUZ) and the African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN) has guaranteed the performance of the coalition and impact of the programme.

Challenges: The limited infrastructure of the schools is a disincentive for both parents in returning their children to school and for good teachers to come to the district. In attempt to overcome this challenge, CACLAZ has mobilised the community to build better classrooms. The community has in turn taken ownership of the cause and collectively provided the building materials and the labour required in building them.

Next steps: Building further on the pilote phase of the programme, CACLAZ aims to expand activities with the objective of having 1000 children re-integrated into school by the end of 2014.

37) Child Labour Platform – Global Compact


Period of implementation: Since 2010

Where: Global

Main focus: Mobilization of private sector

Lead organization: UN Global Compact website: http://www.unglobalcompact.org/

Results: About 30 companies from the cocoa,cotton/garments, mining and tourism sectors participated in the working group of the Child Labour Platform; nine good practices have been identified and described; comprehensive publication containing business practices and the main lessons learned within the Child Labour Platform during its first year - inspired by the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights; recommendations for public procurements developed in close cooperation with CSR Netherlands and the Stop Child Labour Campaign.


Context and objective:

The Child Labour Platform was established in 2010, following the Global Conference on Child Labour of May 2010, in Hague, as a result of the commitment made by the Dutch Government to facilitate sharing of good practices and usage of combined experiences of companies from multiple sectors, which was declared in the global Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour by 2016 as key components for accelerated progress towards the established goals.

The Platform is a multisector, multistakeholder forum for sharing experiences and lessons learned in eliminating child labour, particularly in the supply chain. It delivers training and capacity support, link with global and local initiatives against child labour, and foster practical action that can make a difference in affected communities.

At the request of the Dutch Government, The Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) coordinated the set up and the first year of the Child Labour Platform. As an initiative of the UN Global Compact Labour Working Group, the Platform was co-chaired by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) and the International Organisation of Employers (IOE), and coordinated by the ILO and the Global Compact Office.

In October 2010, the Steering Committee of the Child Labour Platform formulated the following four overall objectives for the Platform:


  1. To identify 10 good practices for reducing and eliminating child labour (in principle 2 in each of the five focus sectors) and to make these available to the wider community via the UN Global Compact website.

  2. To collect experiences in and learn from the implementation of good practices by 50 participating businesses in five sectors.

  3. To formulate per sector practical business, investment and social procurement guidelines, based on the identified good practices and the combined experience of stakeholders inside and outside of the child labour platform.

  4. To stimulate implementation of these guidelines in government procurement and by the financial sector.


Methodology: To guide the activities of the Working Groups of the Platform, the IDH developed a four-step approach, starting with a quick scan of practices of participants, peer learning in Working Group workshops, development of good practices, and a final publication. One good practice was identified in relation to each of the nine elements of John Ruggie’s ‘UN Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights’, which allowed for the good practices to be applicable in multiple sectors (represented in and outside of the Child Labour Platform). The following good practices were developed:

  1. Child labour policy supported by operational guidelines.

  2. Tailored training for key employees.

  3. Building relationships with first-tier suppliers: supplier support and supplier relationship strategies.

  4. Tracking performance of suppliers: involvement of external and internal stakeholders.

  5. Collaborative action to address lower tiers in the supply chain.

  6. Combining non-judicial and judicial channels for addressing child labour incidences.

  7. When child labour is found: a remediation approach based on engagement with supplier, local stakeholders and affected persons.

  8. Partnership approach to address root causes of child labour.

  9. Communication on performance and challenges.

The nine good practices were developed with the assistance of two human rights experts, A quick scan survey was processed among 17 companies, 12 interviews were conducted with participating companies and several workshops were held around the content of the good practices.

Practical guidelines for business, investment and public procurement based on the lessons learned in the platform and outside of the platform were developed. Furthermore, key points of attention and main lessons learned from the discussions in the Child Labour Platform have been captured in a comprehensive Booklet. Based on the good practices and the booklet, practical guidelines for social procurement were further developed in cooperation with the Stop Child Labour Campaign of Hivos.

To stimulate the implementation of the lessons learned in the first year of the Child Labour Platform, the Booklet and other documents of the Child Labour Platform were disseminated to a wide audience, including through a series of IDH forums, such as the International Supply Management Congress, Amsterdam December 16, 2011; the UN World Tourism Organization, Berlin March 9 2012; and the Global Compact Netherlands & Germany Conference, Arnhem April 25 2012.

In addition, other partners have also started using the booklet and other documents of the Child Labour Platform in their communication. The Stop Child Labour Campaign will for example use the booklet and the practical guidelines for public procurement within their network and at workshops/seminars they organize for their partners and potential new partners. The pension fund company APG will use the paper on the interpretation of the booklet in a financial context in its network as a discussion document, stimulating thinking and discussion on the topic.


Lessons learned: The most critical condition for success is the active support from business partners and other stakeholders in the platform to contribute their knowledge and experiences of good practices in combating child labour and making this information available and accessible to other companies. Furthermore the working group needs to be able to create engagement, authority and confidence of the stakeholders and of the wider group of participants to commit to the reduction and elimination of child labour.
Challenges: The Child Labour Platform was originally set up as a business platform with multi-stakeholder elements. In the early stages of the Child Labour Platform it was highly important to gain commitment and create a ‘safe’ environment for companies to discuss the sensitive topic of child labour. After two initial meetings, other stakeholders (NGO’s, unions, experts) were invited to participate as well.
Next steps: In April 2012, the Child Labour Platform (CLP) was transferred to the International Organisation of Employers (IOE) and the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). The visions for the near future is that the Platform will provide training and tools for member companies to help them address and prevent child labour in accordance to their respective obligations and corporate social responsibilities. The Platform will also offer opportunities for businesses to work jointly and collaboratively with ILO and the UN Global Compact in different countries and communities to address the issue of child labour, with an explicit focus on quality education to promote an adequate and productive school-to-work transition in favor of community development. The Platform will also further identify obstacles that businesses face in implementing the Global Compact Principle 5 (Businesses should uphold the effective abolition of child labour), based on the principles of the ILO child labour Conventions, catalyzing practical – and, where appropriate, joint - solutions.
38) USING A STUDY ON THE HEALTH STATUS OF WORKING CHILDREN TO INFLUENCE POLICY


Period of implementation: 2006 -2007

Where: Kyrgyzstan

Main focus: Monitoring processes supported by health data to strengthening public policies on child labour

Lead organization: Ministry of Health of the Government of Kyrgyzstan

homepage: http://www.med.kg/



Results: 400 children aged 10-16 years and their families covered by awareness raising campaigns; knowledge base on child labour strengthened, with exact data about hazards and risks for children’s health in agricultural work; regular medical examinations of working children undertaken by Ministry of Health in municipal markets; two 15-minute documentaries on child labour in agriculture and child labour in informal economy were produced; meetings with parents in all schools undertaken by the Ministry of Education to provides information on the risks children are faced with in the world of work and the value of education;


Context and objective: Poverty remains one of the main underlying causes of child labour in Kyrgyzstan. The majority of children involved in child labour work as unpaid family workers in rural areas of the country. Kyrgyzstan relies heavily on agriculture, producing tobacco, cotton, maize, rice, potatoes and vegetables. The southern part of Kyrgyzstan, including Osh, Jalalabad and Batken regions, is the major tobacco-growing area of the country. Apart from agricultural work, children of Kyrgyzstan are also involved in the mining of coal and gold, and cattle rearing.

Many children working in agriculture are exposed to the worst forms of child labour (WFCL). They are vulnerable to an array of hazards, such as carrying heavy workloads, being exposed to dangerous pesticides and fertilizers and using dangerous tools. In tobacco fields many children are involved in spraying, curing and grading.

In order to stimulate political momentum toward the elimination of child labour, solid data on the conditions and hazards confronting working children is an important component. Providing such information lays the groundwork for mobilizing policymakers as well as the general public.

The Action Programme “Health status and rehabilitation of working children in tobacco, rice and cotton fields in Osh and Jalalabat regions” aimed at strengthening the knowledge base on hazardous child labour through the provision of reliable data on the hazards and risks of child work in agriculture and, particularly, in cotton, rice, and tobacco plantations based on (1) a medical examination of working and non-working children, (2) a hygienic assessment of labour conditions, and (3) an awareness raising campaign among the parents, children, and general public on hazardous child labour in agriculture.


Methodology: In cooperation with the Ministry of Health and its local subdivisions, the NGO Positive Help undertook a comprehensive medical and hygienic examination of 300 child labourers working in cotton, rice, and tobacco plantations. In addition, the assessment covered 100 non-working children as a control group to compare the findings.

The study strengthened the knowledge base on child labour and provided exact data about the hazards and risks for children’s health of working in agriculture. The study also helped to examine more closely the relationship between children’s exposure to work hazards and the occurrence of work-related injuries. The received information was a crucial element in advocacy and awareness raising campaigns following the examination. The study made it possible to obtain a profile of children’s occupational risks to children and to assess the gender differences in these risks, and it helped policy makers to justify moving the issue higher up the list of priorities.

The results of the study were presented to the members of the Coordination Council on Child Labour, which is headed by the Vice Prime Minister. Two 15-minute documentaries on child labour in agriculture and child labour in informal economy were produced using the findings of the examination. The documentaries focused on hazards and risks that children faced in different types of activity in cotton, tobacco, and rice plantations, and showed the differences in health status of working and non-working children. The documentaries have been widely used during different capacity building and awareness raising events.

Awareness raising events were organized as part of the Action Programme, covering 400 children aged 10-16 years from Osh and Jalal-Abad regions and their families. The interactive way of undertaking the meetings using the results of the medical examinations and visual materials on the differences between the health status of working and non-working children made a significant contribution to promoting active child participation in the fight against child labour. The problem was later raised and discussed in school parliaments with the participation of parents and local community members.



Furthermore, the findings of the medical and hygienic assessments of working children in agriculture served as a means of justification for developing a national list of hazardous types of work.
Lessons learned: Assessments such as the ones carried out as part of this initiative create a good entry point for a broad number of interventions aimed at combating child labour.
Challenges: A key challenge consist in raising awareness on child labour and thus promote action among key stakeholders. By producing and disseminating national data, the approach of this initiative proved to be notably more efficient than previous attempts of raising awareness with the help of figures and numbers from other countries.
Next steps: Expectations are that the practice of undertaking comprehensive medical and hygienic assessments will be further replicated in other sectors at national level, as these assessments create a good entry point for broad number of interventions aimed at combating child labour.


39) DEVELOPING A NATIONAL POLICY ON CHILD LABOUR


Period of implementation: 2011 – 2013

Where: Tajikistan

Main focus: Participatory development of national policy to address child labour

Lead organization: Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population of the Government of Tajikistan homepage: http://www.mehnat.tj/index.php/en/

Results: Common development objectives and immediate objectives to eliminate the worst forms of child labour in Tajikistan by 2020, established and agreed among and between the different stakeholders; national action plan presented to general public in June 2013; increased capacity of 35 members of the National Working Group on the Elimination of Child Labour and the Commission on Child’s Rights.


Context and objective: Although ILO Convention No. 182 was ratified by Tajikistan in 2005, as of 2011, no national policy had yet been determined to eliminate the worst forms of child labour. This was identified by ILO-IPEC as a policy gap that needed urgent attention, and consequently the Action Programme “Drafting of a National Action Plan on Prevention and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Tajikistan for 2014-2020 based on wide consultations with key stakeholders at central and local levels” was assigned to the Information Research Centre “SocService” (a Non-Governmental Organization) for the period of June 2011 to March 2013.
Methodology: As part of the Action Programme, a tripartite working group (TWG) was established under the coordination of the Coordination Council on the Elimination of Child Labour in consultation with the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population (MLSP) to draft the National Plan (NP) and National Action Plan (NAP). The TWG included 25 representatives of the key ministries and governmental agencies: MLSP, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Justice, Committee on Women and Family Affairs, and Statistics Agency, as well as representatives of the Lower Chamber of the Parliament, Department of Employment and Social Protection of the President’s Executive Office and other relevant departments identified in the background document on child labour. Other members of the TWG were the organizations of employers and workers, as well as non-governmental and international organizations (ILO-IPEC, UNIFEM, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNDP, IOM, and Save the Children). The inter-sectoral and multi-agency composition of the group allowed for various sectoral and gender perspectives to be represented.

Since Tajikistan had not had an earlier experience of developing a policy to eradicate the worst forms of child labour, a particular focus was laid on broad consultations to inform and enhance the capacity of members of the NAP. During implementation of the Action Programme, the NAP was revised three times in order to identify more solid and actual strategies, objectives, and activities to eliminate child labour. The series of consultations on the national and local levels assisted in identifying priority areas of interventions to eliminate the worst forms of child labour in Tajikistan, taking into account the feasibility of the planned measures, the availability of capacity and funds, and the necessity of maximum efficiency to eliminate the worst forms of child labour by 2020.


Lessons learned: Repeatedly revising, drafting, and discussing the NAP during the consultations facilitated the establishment of a close rapport with the partners. During the national and local consultations, more authority and responsibility was delegated to local authorities and concerned agencies, as they are more familiar with the problems of working children. Through this process, the voice of direct beneficiaries of the NAP was collected and integrated into the NAP. In order to achieve the mentioned results through the consultations process, sufficient time was needed to finish the drafting process of the NAP for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour.
Challenges: Despite the sometimes opposing views of those involved, it was possible through the series of consultations to bring them together under a unified approach in addressing child labour. Via a long process of consultations, it was possible to compromise, and to identify development objectives and immediate objectives to eliminate the worst forms of child labour in Tajikistan by 2020.

Next steps: The main objective in the development of the NAP was to address the problems of children engaged in the worst forms of child labour and the creation of a stable framework for the development of policy in the long term. With the NAP in place, one important step has been taken towards the elimination of the worst forms of child labour throughout the country. The next steps will consist in transforming the established policy framework into action.

40) Mobilizing a global civil society movement for combating commercial sexual exploitation of children: ECPAT’s experience of effecting change from the ground up


Period of implementation: Since 1990

Where: Globaly

Main focus: Social mobilization, international agreements and monitoring of policies to address sexual exploitation of children

Lead organization: ECPAT International homepage: http://www.ecpat.net/

Results: A global civil society network works to prevent and address CSEC and to monitor State counteraction; research and evidence based practices inform and improve prevention and response to commercial sexual exploitation of children at the programme and policy levels; children and youth participate safely with peers and others in the fight against sexual exploitation of children; governments commit to take action against sexual exploitation of children and demonstrate systematic progress in addressing the problem in monitoring reports; traditional and non-traditional stakeholders such as private sector (Tourism Industry, ICT Industry etc.) establish mechanisms for cooperation in addressing the various manifestations of the commercial sexual exploitation of children


Context and objective:

The prevalence and tolerance of commercial sexual exploitation of children began to attract public attention in the mid-1980s when some highly publicized cases exposed by local NGOs drew international attention to the way in which sex with Asian children was being transacted among adults for exploitation which was described as a modern form of slavery. In 1988 the Ecumenical Coalition on Third World Tourism (ECTWT) launched a research project aimed at uncovering the facts regarding child prostitution in three Asian countries: Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Thailand. The aim was to uncover and document the connections between tourism and the increasing volume of child prostitution as a basis for further action. The results of the studies were heard at a consultation on child prostitution and tourism, held in Chiang Mai, Thailand in May 1990. The consultation ended with a determination to take action, and ECPAT was established initially as a campaign to “End Child Prostitution in Asia Tourism” focusing on ending the ‘commercial’ aspect of sexual exploitation of children. The ECPAT campaign gained unprecedented support and attention beyond Asia. A wide range of organizations, academics, faith based groups, UN and Government activists and other social actors participated in these early process led by the civil society.

In 1996, First World Congress against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Stockholm, Sweden was organized by ECPAT in partnership with UNICEF and the NGO Group for the Rights of the Child (now known as Child Rights Connect) and with support of other key partners such as ILO. Through these central partnerships and the backing of the Governments of Sweden, Japan and Brazil as hosts, a total of three World Congresses against CSEC, have been convened. A core element of this effort has also been to maintain ongoing civil society participation in monitoring national level action so as to facilitate the periodic review of actions taken by States for implementation of global commitments and compliance with key international human rights instruments relevant to the protection of children from sexual exploitation (CRC, OPSC, the related Human Rights Council mandates; and to give effect to the Stockholm Agenda for Action and the Rio Declarations) which provide guidance on the required response against sexual exploitation of children. Active support of the civil society movement against CSEC and of its engagement in the monitoring of commitments of Stockholm -1996, Yokohama, Japan – 2001, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – 2008 has led to increased State and non-State action and collaborations to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children in countries across the world.
Methodology:

The sustained mobilization of civil society organizations for their lead in the social movement against the sexual exploitation of children required multiple strategies and activities such as:



  • Development of civil society networks at the national level: Network development was initiated with mapping of national actors working on children’s issues to identify those working on sexual exploitation and to establish the nature and scope of work. Consultations established the interest and capacity of different organizations to work against CSEC.

  • Strengthen capacities for research, education and advocacy to address sexual exploitation of children: Situational analysis was undertaken by the civil society organizations at the country level to generate in-depth understanding and evidence of the issue. These in-country analyses examined the socio-economic context, push and pull factors, prevalence and various manifestations of sexual exploitation of children, existing legal framework protecting children from sexual exploitation, civil society, government, law enforcement and the private sector response, and the based analysis on the progress and gaps put forth concrete recommendations for programming and policy reform frameworks within countries. These reports were extensively used for raising public awareness and provided the imperative in advocating with the governments for development of the National Policies and Plans to combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.

  • Design and implementation of counteractions based on the different forms and modalities of commercial sexual exploitation of children: In country analysis, regional and global processes were instrumental in highlighting the extent of the problem of CSEC and its various manifestations including emerging issues. These high level processes and events helped to inform and guide the global response framework against the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Strategies focused on integrated cross-sectoral coordination and cooperation prevention, protection, recovery and reintegration of child victims. Alliances were formed between sectors such as with law enforcement, travel and tourism industry, ICT Industry, faith based groups, academia, UN agencies, government bodies to strengthen the multi-sector approach to protecting children from sexual exploitation in all manifestations and settings.

  • Support participation of most-at-risk children and those affected by sexual exploitation: Children’s safe and meaningful participation in the design and implementation of the programmes and policies affecting them were promoted through local NGOs with direct access to child victims of CSEC.

  • Increased capacities of multi-sector professionals in addressing CSEC, such as social workers, NGOs, Teachers, health professional, law enforcement, judiciary, private sector (travel and tourism, ICT): Conducting capacity building, providing training resource kits on protection of children from sexual exploitation in tourism, training guides on combating trafficking in children for sexual purposes, training the trainer guide, training guide for psychosocial rehabilitation of children who have been commercially sexually exploited.

  • Strengthen the roles of the civil society organizations to monitor progress against international and local commitments to protect children from sexual exploitation: At the national level, local organizations produce country monitoring reports that identify and analyse a country’s progress and commitment to fighting CSEC. Contribution to the Universal Periodic Reviews highlight the issue of sexual exploitation and call for specific recommendations for the State parties.


Lessons learned:

A key strategy of the campaign to end child prostution was to build collaboration and partnerships among local civil society and other sectors concerned with children’s issues to form a global social movement for protection of children from sexual exploitation.

As participation in the movement by actors from across the world grew and knowledge about the nature and spread of sexual exploitation of children increased, the imperative for ensuring high level engagement by governments to address these violations against children became a central priority of the global campaign. National level actors from all sectors began marshalling support among relevant government agencies calling for initiatives to study and address the problem.

The need to establish guidance for understanding the nature of sexual exploitation of children, for planning and executing countermeasures and for supporting children with recovery and reintegration, was increasingly evident as the movement grew.



The different forums which ECPAT takes part have provided a vital channel and platform for engagement and participation of the global community in a sustained process of exchange, analysis and systematic planning of initiatives to combat sexual exploitation of children worldwide.
Challenges: ECPAT’s methodology was designed in response to some of the following challenges identified by civil society organizations, government actors, UN agencies, etc. in the area of CSEC:

  • Coordination and Cooperation: little exchange of information between and within countries of relevant stakeholders, lack of National Plans of Action against CSEC or for children in general and lack of effective systems of data collection;

  • Prevention: high levels of poverty and other push issues that increase vulnerability of children to sexual exploitation, societal tolerance and impunity towards CSEC victims, limited resources available/given to children’s issues /child protection and lack of education for communities of potential dangers of CSEC

  • Protection: lack of harmonization of legislation with international standards, limited implementation of the law and few prosecutions/convictions of perpetrators and lack of child-friendly procedures;

  • Recovery and Reintegration: lack of coordinated efforts in recovery programs for children and gaps in assistance and reintegration, and lack of rehabilitation services and treatment;

  • Child and Youth Participation: lack of resources and sustainability of the participation of children in programs, and limited access of children to decision making bodies particularly those that are most vulnerable and at-risk to CSEC;


Next Steps: The continuation of the success of ECPAT´s strategies relies also in initiatives such as the ECPAT’s Youth Partnership Project (YPP), which seeks to ensure children’s right to actively and meaningfully participate in social change and work against CSEC as legitimate social actors, partners and rights holders. These initiatives encourage the empowerment of young survivors of CSEC and at-risk youth to run advocacy campaigns, lobby governments and raise awareness to protect children from CSEC. Besides, ECPAT International Assemblies, convened every 3 years, provide a platform for systematic analysis of the implementation of the strategies framework on addressing sexual exploitation of children by the global network.

41) Abordaje al trabajo doméstico infantil y adolescente, en el marco de la estrategia nacional para la mejora de la situación de los y las trabajadoras domésticas.


Period of implementation: 2005 – 2013

Where: Uruguay

Main focus: Inspeción en el area del trabajo domestico infantile

Lead organization: Inspección General del Trabajo y la Seguridad Social del Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de Uruguay

sitioweb: http://www.mtss.gub.uy/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=29&Itemid=41



Results: aumento de la formalidad del trabajo doméstico em un 65%, desde 40.000 trabajadoras cotizantes en 2004 a 65.000 en 2011; aumento exponencial de la fiscalización en la actividad doméstica; abordaje por primera vez en el país de los aspectos de salud, seguridad y medio ambiente en el que se desempeñan las trabajadoras domésticas; mayor nivel de concientización sobre los riesgos del trabajo doméstico de niños, niñas y adolescentes, por parte de las propias niñas trabajadoras, de sus familias y de los actores institucionales más relevantes para la infancia y adolescencia (educación, salud, desarrollo social); detección y abordaje de situaciones de extrema vulnerabilidad de niñas y adolescentes; detección y abordaje de situaciones de extrema vulnerabilidad de trabajadoras extranjeras


Context and objective:

En el año 2009 se realizó en Uruguay la única encuesta específica sobre trabajo infantil, de acuerdo a la metodología promovida por IPEC-OIT (realizada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística). En dicha medición se encontró que el 9,9% de los niños y adolescentes de entre 5 a 17 años del Uruguay se encontraban en Trabajo Infantil (TI). Aproximadamente 92.000 niños, niñas y adolescentes se encuentraban en situación de trabajo infantil, en la consideración más amplia relevada. Importante es señalarse que la actividad de niñera es la más numerosa entre las niñas y adolescentes trabajadoras, con un 18%, y la actividad de empleada doméstica se ubica en 5º lugar, con un 5,4%. En términos generales, las trabajadoras provienen de sectores populares, cuentan con baja calificación, realizan un tipo de trabajo desvalorizado socialmente y presentan alta movilidad ocupacional. Desde 2005 la situación de los y las trabajadoras domésticas, incluidas las niñas y adolescentes mujeres, constituye una de las principales preocupaciones del gobierno uruguayo en materia laboral. Es así que en 2006 Uruguay promulga la Ley Nº18.065 que equipara los derechos de los y las trabajadoras domésticas con los demás trabajadores del país y que limita a los 18 años la edad mínima para el trabajo doméstico.

La creación e implementación de esta ley supuso un aporte muy significativo para el desarrollo del Convenio Internacional de Trabajo Nº189, destacándose Uruguay por haber sido el primer país del mundo en ratificarlo. El incumplimiento de las obligaciones establecidas en la ley 18.065 es sancionado de acuerdo a lo dispuesto por la normativa nacional en materia laboral. La IGTSS vigila el cumplimiento de la ley y tiene la potestad de realizar las inspecciones domiciliarias cuando existe presunción de incumplimiento de las normas laborales y de la seguridad social, con orden judicial expedida con conocimiento para entrar al hogar.

La Inspección General del Trabajo (IGTSS) del Ministerio de Trabajo (MTSS) preside el Comité Nacional para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Adolescente Trabajador (CETI), y el Instituto del Niño y el Adolescente del Uruguay (INAU) ejerce su secretaría. En el marco del CETI, espacio de carácter cuatripartito (gobierno, organización de trabajadores, organización de empleadores, sociedad civil organizada) se han generado diversas propuestas de acciones para el abordaje del trabajo infantil y adolescente, con el compromiso de todas las partes.


Methodology:

Los principales aspectos de la estrategia uruguaya pueden sintetizarse en:



  • legislación adecuada que establece los mismos derechos para las trabajadoras domésticas que para el resto de los trabajadores

  • legislación adecuada en materia de derechos de niños, niñas y adolescentes, con atención al trabajo infantil y adolescente

  • política nacional de protección del adolescente trabajador, en cualquier sector de actividad e incluyendo al trabajo doméstico

  • diálogo social tripartito y cuatripartito

  • fiscalización sistemática y cada vez más profunda

  • construcción de una nueva matriz de protección social para todos los niños, niñas y adolescentes, con acciones focalizadas para aquellos en situación de mayor vulnerabilidad, como son los niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores

Desde 2010 a la fecha, la IGTSS ha realizado operativos fiscalizadores de oficio alcanzando en cada año 4.500 hogares aproximadamente, en las principales ciudades del país. Del total de hogares visitados, en un 25% se encontró y logró fiscalizar trabajo doméstico, encontrándose también algunas trabajadoras adolescentes. En 2012, se solicitó orden judicial para ingresar al hogar y relevar el trabajo doméstico a partir de que existía la presunción cierta de trabajo doméstico extranjero informal. En todos los operativos fiscalizadores se desarrolló también una campaña de información y sensibilización a trabajadoras y empleadores, brindando material gráfico con las disposiciones que establece la mencionada ley y que determina nuevas obligaciones para los empleadores.

El INAU realiza inspecciones en materia de trabajo de niños, niñas y adolescentes, en particular las vinculadas al trabajo doméstico. Estas inspecciones se realizan en el marco del trabajo coordinado entre INAU y la IGTSS. Asimismo, el INAU es el organismo responsible de emitir el Carné de Trabajo Adolescente, sin el cual nos es legal emplear a personas entre los 15 y 17 años inclusive. El otorgamiento de este Carné está sujeto a la demostración por parte del empleador de que no existen riesgos para la o el adolescente, que el trabajo se desarrolla en horario diurno y jornada laboral restringida, que las/os adolescentes continúan sus estudios, y se requiere examen médico previo. Además, esta habilitación debe ser aceptada por el/la adolescente y por madre, padre o tutor.

Desde el CETI y en el marco del trabajo realizado en el Órgano Sociolaboral del MERCOSUR, se han desarrollado campañas de información y sensibilización específicas sobre trabajo doméstico de niños, niñas y adolescentes, dando cuenta de los riesgos a que están expuestos, así como las disposiciones legales que prohiben el trabajo de niños y niñas y protege el trabajo de los y las adolescentes. Estas campañas han incluido talleres y seminarios con actores nacionales y locales, en diversos departamentos del país.

Asimismo, desde el CETI se han realizado acciones de coordinación permanente entre los organismos públicos y los actores sociales, de modo de atender las situaciones específicas que se detectan, para integrar a niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores a los servicios y programas acordes para su edad, con énfasis en la educación formal, la formación profesional y la atención en salud. Debe destacarse en este sentido, el desarrollo de la nueva matriz de protección social para niños, niñas y adolescentes de Uruguay.


Lecciones aprendidas:

Las campañas han incluido talleres y seminarios con actores nacionales y locales, en diversos departamentos del país, que han tenido muy buena receptividad de los participantes de las diferentes localidades. Además, el desarrollo de la nueva matriz de protección social para niños, niñas y adolescentes desde la elaboración de la Estrategia Nacional para la Infancia y Adolescencia 2010-2030 y la construcción de la Reforma Social, que supuso un crecimiento sin precedentes en materia de acceso a derechos por parte de las personas menores de 18 años. El diálogo social tripartito y cuatripartito ha permitido la construcción de acuerdos sociales amplios y específicos, y asimismo, en el marco del CETI - espacio de carácter cuatripartito (gobierno, organización de trabajadores, organización de empleadores, sociedad civil organizada), se han generado diversas propuestas de acciones para el abordaje del trabajo infantil y adolescente, con el compromiso de todas las partes.


Challenges: los principales desafíos son:

  • continuar reduciendo la informalidad del sector;

  • sostener y profundizar la fiscalización de la Inspección de Trabajo y del INAU;

  • continuar mejorando las condiciones de trabajo, en particular vinculadas a la salud y seguridad laboral;

  • avanzar en la detección y abordaje de situaciones de trabajo doméstico de niños, niñas y adolescentes;

  • profundizar las acciones de sensibilización e información en las ciudades pequeñas y ámbitos suburbanos y rurales;

  • profundizar las acciones de corte social para abordar las situaciones de trabajo infantil doméstico en los hogares propios (no de terceros);


Next Steps:

El CETI se encuentra elaborando cuatripartitamente una propuesta de Plan de Acción para la protección del adolescente trabajador, donde se atenderá con particularidad la situación de las y los trabajadores domésticos.




42) Domestic child labour rights: advocacy, support and social mobilization


Period of implementation: Since 1995

Where: Philippines

Main focus: Mobilization and advocacy for the rights of domestic child labourers

Lead organization: Samahan at Ugnayan ng mga Manggagawang Pantahanan sa Pilipinas (Association and linkages of domestic workers in the Philippines)

website: http://www.oncan.org/SUMAPI/SUMAPI.htm

contact: https://www.facebook.com/SUMAPI


Results: Contribution to the adoption of the convention and subsequently promulgation of national legislation outlawing child labor in the Philippines; the promulgation of the Magna Carta for Domestic Workers; improvement of child domestic workers’ access to education by providing significant educational assistance in both formal and non-formal education; 20,000 domestic workers reached out in parks, school, churches, and villages; 8,000 members nationwide with more than 40 core groups in seven areas (Cebu, Bacolod, Iloilo, Dumaguete, Batangas, Davao, and the National Capital Region).


Context and objective:

The Philippines still remains to be one of the leading sources of domestic workers in the world. Every year 2.2 million Filipinos leave the country for work abroad. A huge percentage of Filipinos working abroad are domestic workers. In 2010, twenty-eight per cent (28%) of newly-hired Filipino workers were domestic workers. In a National Statistics Office (NSO) 2011 Survey on Children in the Philippines, it was found that out of the 29 million Filipino children (aged 5-17 years old), about 5.5 million were working - at least one out of five. Almost 3 million of them were in hazardous child labour situations such as those in mines, factories, and on the streets. The Samahan at Ugnayan ng mga Manggagawang Pantahanan sa Pilipinas or SUMAPI is a national association and linkage of domestic workers in the Philippines. Organized in 1995 through the support of Visayan Forum Foundation Inc., SUMAPI started as a support network of abused domestic workers that were found in parks during outreach activities. The Philippines has achieved significant progress in terms of advancing the cause of domestic workers; both policies effectively protect the various rights of domestic workers. SUMAPI focused on reaching out to and organizing its ranks first by presenting itself as a peer support group. It went on to launch advocacy campaigns that generated interest in its agenda and it focused on building the capacity of its members to understand and advocate the issue.


Methodology:

SUMAPI primarily serves as the voice of domestic workers in local, national, and international advocacy initiatives. Throughout its existence, SUMAPI has pioneered creative approaches in reaching out to domestic workers nationwide and bringing programs and services closer to the sector. It has also helped protect its members against abuses and facilitated actions to remove them from exploitative conditions, most especially the child domestic workers. Most importantly, the organization has successfully advanced the promulgation of the Magna Carta for the sector.

As mobility and invisibility of the sector is a major challenge since domestic workers remain within the household (with minimal opportunities for exposure to information about their rights and the social services available to them; and access to outside assistance in situations of abuse and exploitation), SUMAPI developed strategies and approaches in organizing the sector.

One of the strategies activated is a collective call to “find its fellows, together”. This strategy involved using a friendly approach to gain the domestic workers’ trust and convince them that the organizers are serious in the efforts to help them. Thus, outreach activities were done in places where domestic workers feel comfortable and typically in “friendly mode” – these were in parks, churches, malls, and villages, and usually on days when domestic workers are off-duty.

SUMAPI strongly believes that domestic workers themselves should be involved in all undertakings of the organization. They should be allowed and encouraged to speak and to share their thoughts, views, and opinion. Thus, SUMAPI activates highly participative activities and employs consultative mechanisms.
SUMAPI observes as a policy the development and enhancement of sustainable relationships between employers and domestic workers, leading to better treatment of them. It is very important that employers allow their domestic workers to participate in the activities conducted by SUMAPI and its partners. It facilitates educational training to make domestic workers aware of their rights, recognize their worth and their significant role in the society. This equips them to identify their issues, raise their concerns, and demand for their rights.

SUMAPI has had an active participation in local and international campaigns for policy formulation such as the Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, the adoption of ILO Convention 189 on the Decent Work for Domestic Worker, and crafting and lobbying of the Magna Carta for Domestic Workers in the Philippines. It was the only domestic workers’ group in the Philippines involved in the consultations done for the Philippines’ response to the ILO Law and Practice survey. It is an active member of the Technical Working Group on the Philippine Campaign on Decent Work for Domestic Workers (the TWG), and as such, joined and organized various national, regional, and local consultations across the country. SUMAPI led the campaign at both the national and international level.

It has been successful in providing direct services for domestic workers especially those that protect and advance their welfare. It facilitates more lucrative employment opportunities, and educational assistance especially to child domestic workers. It also operates a hotline-based and referral-based rescue and rehabilitation program for distressed domestic workers. It has devised and activated a one-stop shop model where domestic workers can access basic services and programs from various institutions called the Kasambahay (Domestic Worker) Desk. The desk provides for all the programmatic services and interventions. It operates on a partnership mobilization and referral protocol. This model has been strongly advocated and is included in the implementing rules and regulations for the Magna Carta for Domestic Workers as a local government mandate.
Lessons learned:

The combination of organizing of domestic workers with the support of multi sectoral partners, the strong local organization of SUMAPI and the vigilance in the legislative area is a proven good practice that changed the landscape of the domestic sector in the Philippines.


Challenges:

As is the challenge in every organization, SUMAPI suffers from resource-generation difficulties. The organization continues to grow and it is reaping the success of work done for decades with the passage of the magna carta. However, SUMAPI does not have enough resources to sustain its growth.

The Law (Batas Kasambahay) is a success in itself, but the Philippine experience in the implementation of laws runs as a threat to the measure. The challenge of ensuring the strict implementation of the law is evident. Even during the crafting of its implementing rules and regulations, concerns over conflicting measures, funding and sustainability options, and diverse directions in terms of interpretation were made manifest.

The personal and sensitive characteristic of the issue poses as a strong challenge in terms of engaging employers. There has been great blockade in advancing the cause, especially at the legislative front. The engagement of non-traditional partners, especially those who have enough clout to influence is necessary, for this purpose, various churches and academic institutions were enlisted into the campaign and the program.


Next Steps:

For the future, would be important to document the SUMAPI experience in organizing domestic workers, engaging partners, and policy advocacy, to module its training curriculum for service providers and other stakeholders, to institutionalize its programs and services in government structures, to strength international support and to develop a program for sharing and learning among countries about its field experience.



43) CHILD WORKERS – CWIN: integrated approach to face child labour


Period of implementation: 2011- ongoing

Where: Nepal

Main focus: Integrated approach, social mobilization and social protection to address child labour in tourism related services

Lead organization: Child Workers in Nepal (CWIN - Nepal) (http://www.cwin.org.np/)

Results: Permanent child labour monitoring unit established and functioning within the three Municipalities in the Kathmandu Valley, with designated staff for monitoring and reporting of restaurant/hotel child workers; majority of the restaurant child workers from the Kathmandu Valley informed about their safety and protection through peer educators; child workers empowered to seek service and support from available services and Child Helpline 1098; at least 500 restaurant child workers received support for their social reintegration such as emergency support, rescue from Child Helpline 1098, family reunion, health service and counseling; 150 restaurant child workers empowered and able to seek opportunities for self-reliance and social reintegration or start micro enterprises after removal from exploitative work; at least 150 restaurant child workers under the age of 14 reunited with their respective families; funds allocated by all three municipalities for continuous monitoring work and support for child workers.


Context and objective: According to ILO/IPEC statistics (research by IREWOC-2010) there are approximately 2,600,000 working children in Nepal, of whom 60% are between the ages of 6 to 14 years. 1.7 million Nepalese children work in economically active fields whereas 900,000 work without any payment. Although the Government of Nepal has ratified 18 international conventions and several regional conventions to help protect the rights of the child (including the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and ILO Conventions) and enacted the Children’s Act of 1992 and its by-laws of 1994, violations of children’s rights continue to occur throughout the country.

Children working in roadside restaurants or tea shops are common sights in Nepal. Poverty profoundly affects families, compelling these children to move out of their villages to nearby towns or cities in search of work to sustain and to support their families back home. The parents of these children face hardship in the villages and cannot even meet their primary needs such as food, clothing, shelter or healthcare. They do not give priority to the education of their children as they assume that education does not have immediate results. Instead, children are often encouraged to take on adult responsibilities of contributing to the family income.

Initially, children used to come to the cities from surrounding villages. Yet, the current situation is becoming more and more complex, as the profile of the children who work in restaurants are increasingly diverse in terms of cast and ethnic background, including migrant children from nearby regions of India.

According to a survey conducted in nineteen districts of five development regions of Nepal it is estimated that there are 71,767 restaurant child workers in 20,505 tea shops and restaurants throughout the country. The survey also found that meanwhile the average number of working children per district amounts to 770, the Kathmandu district alone has 14,787 working children. Many children and employers are not aware of child rights and labour laws. As a result, children become victims of physical, mental, and economic exploitation, as well as extensive working hours without breaks, often with no education or health support.

The project is designated to work closely with municipalities to strengthen their Municipal Child Protection Committees to further promote that adequate action is taken to ensure that government rules, regulation, policies and laws are implemented as required. The key concerned authorities to enforce such policies and laws within the area of child labor issues such as restaurant working children are the Central Child Welfare Board (CCWB), the District Child Welfare Board (DCWB), and the Municipality Child Protection Committee (MCPC). Child Workers in Nepal (CWIN) is an integral member of both the CCWB and the DCWB, and is providing ongoing support for the development of their respective strategies. The MCPCs serve as the functional government body for monitoring of child labour issues, however, so far, MCPCs have been established in only a few municipalities. The overall goal of the work of CWIN is to contribute to the elimination of child labour in Kathmandu Valley. An important first step towards such goal will be to establish functioning Municipal MCPCs in the municipalities of this area and set up a child labour monitoring unit focusing on child workers in restaurants and teashops.
Methodology: The initiative is carried out in an integrated manner, engaging all key stakeholders (i.e. political parties, trade unions, civil society, children and the local bodies such as the wards within the Municipalities), all of whom were trained on child protection, child rights and child labour issues.

Before the start of the monitoring, a wide awareness campaign was organized, reaching out to child workers, their employers and customers in the restaurants and teashops. Following this campaign, an increased number of calls were received at the Child helpline for rescue and support of child workers, all of which were responded to.

The set-up of the monitoring units was followed by complementary and coordinated efforts of monitoring visits, removal of children from exploitative situations, and support actions for a sustainable social reintegration through the system of the Child helpline.

The overall approach is divided into the following three phases:



  1. Advocacy and emergency response, including:

    1. advocacy with the Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) and municipalities around the issue of restaurant child workers in favour of a specific unit to address the issue as well as for the inclusion of clear protection measures in the national child protection policy and in the new child rights bill;

    2. periodic meetings with the CCWB and line ministries (Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Women and Ministry of Social Welfare);

    3. formulation of a multi-stakeholder task force, including political parties, trade unions, business community, civil society and municipalities;

    4. joint implementation by the CWIN and the Nepalese Government of the Child Helpline 1098; and

    5. mobilization of social workers around the issues of monitoring an supervision of restaurant child workers.

  1. Monitoring visits and Children’s Empowerment, including:

    1. Training of municipal and KMC staff in field monitoring and how to refer cases to relevant services/ organisations;

    2. provision of necessary resources and equipment to the municipalities, including computers, furniture and remuneration for field work and reporting;

    3. training of 100 restaurant child workers (over the period of one year) in the area of life skills, child labour exploitations, HIV/AIDS, and sexual abuse, using methods such as painting, dance, theatre;

    4. referral to collaborating centres for education and vocational trainings as well as for social reintegration and family reunions;

    5. coordination with child clubs or youth clubs where children and adolescents can exercise their right to participate.

  1. Municipal commitment for resource allocation for child protection and periodic MCPC meetings.


Lessons learned: The establishment of a multi-stakeholder taskforce, with representatives from trade unions, hotel and restaurant enterprises, municipal staff and NGOs working on child labour, was an important factor, as it generated a sense of ownership among the different stakeholders. Evidence from this initiative shows the importance of engaging children and adolescents themselves in these kinds of interventions, as by building trust relations between child workers and key support agents (such as social workers) and providing them with proper information, these children are empowered to access services and tools that make them able to choose alternative ways and thus escape situation of child labour and/or other forms of exploitation.
Challenges: In the absence of elected Mayors and Ward chiefs, the temporary arrangement of political decision making consists in an all-party joint committee of political party representatives. Thus, to establish the Municipality Child Protection Committee and to set up the monitoring unit, all political parties have to agree and approve of the proposed initiative. To overcome such challenges, and to promote consensus among all parties, CWlN approached the members of the political parties with capacity development and awareness activities related to child rights and child protection, focusing on child labour and the specific situations of child workers in small hotels and restaurants. This resulted in a gradual acceptance and approval of the initiative.
Next steps: With regards to the longer-term outcomes of this initiative and the next steps, the initiative has brought about engagement and ownership of authorities and other relevant stakeholders, including law enforcement agencies. Furthermore, the municipalities covered by this initiative have all allocated resources for its continuation, which will be a critical foundation for a sustainable and ongoing continuation of the initiative.

44) NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE ELIMINATION OF CHILD LABOUR


Period of implementation: the year of 2010

Where: Colômbia

Main focus: Social protection, education and social mobilization strategies to assist families and working children

Lead organization: International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Results: In Santa Rosa del Sur, Bolivar, 355 children were identified and assisted by the project; in San Martin and Barranco de Loba, 71 children and adolescents received psychosocial support to 130 families benefiting; 240 families benefited in Narinõ; strengthening of the National Strategy for the Elimination of Child Labor in Tolima and support provided to 300 families of working children; 201 public servants belonging to 25 regional government bodies attend the virtual training


Context and objective: Colombian Family Welfare Institute (ICBF) and the IOM joined technical and financial resources in order to generate new strategies of care for children and adolescents involved in the worst forms of child labor. In this sense, it was developed activities in institutional strengthening lines, attention to children and adolescents, new development methodologies, including decentralizing the national strategy for the eradication of the worst forms of child labor in departments where are more strongly this problem such as Tolima, Nariño and Bolivar. In those areas, truancy rised to 20.6%, and there are children labour linking with agricultural activities, commerce, industry and mining. The objective of the initiatives is to strengthen and support families of working children at risk, for the restoration of their rights and improve their living conditions.
Methodology: Along with its partners (the Colombian Family Welfare Institute – ICBF, the private company Telefônica, the Colombian Federation of Municipalities) IOM developed an integrated approach with the following dimensions and initiatives:

  1. Identification of working children and their families and establishing baseline, along with the development of technical committees, promoting activation of the Committees for the Elimination of Child Labour (ETI) in the municipalities

  2. Interventions to transform the cultural patterns that legitimize the worst forms of child labor, especially exploitative labor in artisanal mining

  3. Conduct actions to awareness and further commitments

  4. Promote with families the monitoring and construction of the PLANTINFA, which set forms to promote adequate levels of development of the areas of housing, health, nutrition, recreation, communication, education and support

  5. Provide support and family care to include them in ICBF programs

  6. Strengthen families as nuclei by restoring protective parenting processes, communication and conflict resolution based on affection, mutual respect and justice

  7. Accompanying the family and link them to spaces and programs available in the region made by the program RED JUNTOS

  8. Follow up with the families assisted by services or programs for the restoration of their rights especially in the areas of education, health, nutrition, creative use of free time, linking parents of working children with opportunities of formal job contracts, developing training for work to reach young and adults, training courses for families on trade, reading&writing and supporting them to finish primary and secondary school

  9. Engaging children to access flexible educational models such as learning circles and accelerated learning processes, and linkage with the Ministry of Education and Secretaries of Education to search mechanisms to stimulate the permanence and the return of children to schools

  10. Provided recommendations and orientations on innovative methodologies in line with the interests and needs of children and adolescents and their families

  11. Providing technical support for tutors, monitors and participants of virtual trainings, along with strengthening the institutional management capacity related to the strategy to elimination of child labour.


Lessons learned: The key to the project is the joint articulation between the public, private and international cooperation, ensuring a direct positive impact on the target population with long-term results
Challenges: The main challenge lies in changing cultural patterns, since the population accept child labor as a mechanism to form children and adolescents values and not as a violation of their rights. To overcome that challenge there were workshops, lectures, visits, recreational activities, interventions with families, which helped transform cultural patterns in families and communities that legitimize the worst forms of child labor.
Next Steps: Efforts will seek to build commitments and regional political awareness, to make financial resources available, to recruit professionals at the field, who have strong commitment to community service, ensuring long-term relationship, to train and continue to monitor the initiative, and to promote dialogues and community engagement in cultural patterns change to erradicate the problem.

45) ASSISTANCE TO CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING


Period of implementation: 2006 to 2010

Where: Senegal and West Africa

Main focus: Social protection and public awareness on child trafficking

Lead organization: International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Results: 556 children assisted between 2006-2010; 116 child victims of trafficking assisted to reunite with their family, with provision of medical assistance, family tracking in countries of origin, travel kits, travel documents and escort when needed; carried out of a constant coordination and referral with state and non state partners; 88 out of the 116 assisted child victims of trafficking benefited also from reintegration projects in their countries of origin; production of two cartoons with a trafficking story line, having 1000 copies been printed and distributed to NGO partners, shelters and to the general public during two major events organized by IOM (Day of the African Child on June 16th 2010 and the day of the presentation of the result of the program of Assistance to victims of trafficking on Sept 30th 2010 at the French Cultural Centre);


Context and objective:

Many of the unaccompanied and separated children on the move in West Africa are considered to be “Unaccompanied Children” as they have been separated from both parents and other relatives and are not being cared for by an adult who, by law or custom, is responsible for doing so. The pressures on access to employment and on basic social services, such as health and education, are constantly growing and push migration movements, especially of youth, within the region as well as outside movements towards North Africa and Europe. However, overall, the migratory movements, including those of children, remain largely intra-regional. In 2007 and 2008, the OECD estimated that in West Africa 86% of migratory movements were intra-regional. Children migrate internally from rural to urban settings in countries such as in Niger, Senegal or Burkina Faso. There are also transnational migratory movements within the region towards economic centers, for instance the Ivory Coast, Ghana or Nigeria involving children coming from neighboring countries. These movements include children that are trafficked and/or exploited on plantations, in domestic servitude and other forms of child labour in countries of the Gulf of Guinea. To a lesser degree, children move towards Libya and Europe, transiting through Niger. The objectives of this regional programme was to strengthen the capacity of ECOWAS government agencies and civil society to protect child victims of trafficking in a comprehensive and coordinated manner, to enhance the capacity of government agencies and NGOs to identify victims, offer appropriate support to children, provide direct assistance and protective measures to child victims, and to strengthen the cooperation and dialogue between stakeholders with regards to the voluntary return, reintegration and protection process. The partners in target countries of this initiative are their Ministries of Family, Ministries of Justice, UNICEF, shelters and NGOs, Service Social International (SSI) and its network of NGOs partners (AMIC, Sabou Guinée, Keeogo, Enda JA, Empire des Enfants, Samu Social, Centre GINDDI, BICE, EPAD Niger, COSAED, Casa d’Ibrahima).


Methodology: The project was developed in a very participatory manner in its different dimensions such as:

  • planning: engagement of all project stakeholders - local state and non state actors as well as international NGOs gathered to plan on the modalities of identification and assistance to child victims of trafficking in the region;

  • implementation: referrals of children to be assisted were gathered centrally by IOM in Dakar, Senegal and defined with each referring institution; assistance paths were also coordinated for each case according to the needs and available services; each child was assisted and monitored for a period of 6 to 12 months;

  • other awareness raising activities were also planned and implemented with key actors with the aim of involving children and their families;

IOM has been able to enhance the capacity of the programs partners through targeted trainings to identify victims, to offer appropriate support to children, and to provide direct assistance and protective measures to child victims. The program has also offered the possibilities to strengthen the cooperation and dialogue between key stakeholders with regards to the voluntary return, reintegration and protection process.



Lessons learned: The importance of the involvement of families at each stage of the assistance programme; the fact that psychosocial assistance is a key component of the child assistance and that the alternative care options need to be carefully evaluated and be included as part of the assistance programme (there are few options in the region); the need of local authorities to be aware of each step of the process; the importance of considering the needs and the best interest of the child as the basis for each decision on the child assistance pathway.
Challenges: Most of the local NGO partners don’t have enough resources (financial, logistic and human) to ensure a good quality of the services offered to victims of trafficking. Despite the training they have received, many of them have expressed their shortcomings in ensuring a proper monitoring of the cases they have been in charge of because of the huge geographic area they have to cover with limited means.
Next Steps: The programme needs to be adapted to the capacities and care options in each given context (state and non state actors). Anti-trafficking legislation in each given context has to be taken into account for the re-adaptation of the programme.

46) DOCUMENTING EMERGING GOOD PRACTICES OF THE ILO-IPEC - SNAP PROJECT

Period of implementation: 2012

Where: Malawi

Main focus: Social mobilization, structural support to strengthen integrated public policies

Lead organization: Government of Malawi

website for more information: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/multimedia/features/malawi/lang--en/index.htm



Results: Good practices and key lessons learned identified within nine strategic areas of the the ILO-IPEC Project to Support the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labour in Malawi (SNAP), including the National Action Plan for Malawi; integrated area-based approach (IABA) to eliminate child labour; strengthening local action for community-based child labour monitoring systems (CLMS’s) and community infrastructure programmes (CIP’s); community regulation and service delivery in downstream interventions; informal sector targeting through worker organizations and market structures; and exchange visits.


Context and objective: ILO’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) efforts to address issues of child labour in Malawi date back to the year 2000, including support for withdrawal and rehabilitation of children in commercial agriculture (2000-2005) and development of a National Action Plan to combat child labour (2005-2008). The latter effort aimed at mainstreaming child labour across sectors and roll out direct action projects at district and community levels to test models for withdrawing and preventing children from child labour through institutional capacity building, skills training, school mainstreaming and enhancing household food security. The implementation of (SNAP Malawi) 2009-2012, carried over key loose ends to consolidate and expand these previous efforts. The overarching development objective of the project was to contribute towards the elimination of the worst forms of child labour in Malawi and consistently assist Malawi in reaching the global IPEC goal of eliminating child labour through the development and implementation of National Action Plans (NAPs) to fight child labour. Moreover, the SNAP Malawi Project aimed to improve Malawi’s child labour knowledge base and institutionalize intervention models yielding good practices at the national level and shift the focus from targeted sectors of child labour to a more integrated area-based approach (IABA).
In line with the strategic focus of Malawi’s SNAP Project, the overall objective of the documentation of the emerging good practices from the SNAP Malawi Project was to to 1) share knowledge generated from lessons learned and good practices and feed it into the design of new projects or the next phase of a project; and 2) improve Malawi’s child labour knowledge base and create good practice models for laying the foundations and costing of child labour free zones that can be replicated and scaled up throughout the country
Methodology: The methodology and scope in documenting the emerging good practices involved desk review of relevant documents, consultations with the Project Management Team and Implementing Partners, field visits to selected Implementing Partners, consultations during key meetings and presentation of good practices to stakeholders. Several independent elements, including the: (i) guiding rationale and/or theme for the good practice; (ii) background to the project in which the good practice emerged; (iii) achievements and results of the good practice; and (iv) lessons to be drawn from implementation of the good practice formed basis for the identification and presentation of the emerging good practices.
Lessons learned: Child labour interventions do not arrive in a vacuum, and they become more effective when they build on what already exists and are valued as basis for learning and ongoing improvement.
To create a framework for proper coordination mechanisms, laws and policies that bring positive change in public perceptions about children’s needs and rights, National Action Plans (NAPs) should be integrated into national development policies and developed through consultative processes, with participatory, multi-disciplinary and transparent approaches involving key stakeholders at all levels of government (i.e. national, state and municipal/district levels).
Child labour is one symptom of a bigger picture and requires holistic approaches using “upstream” at national and international levels as well as “downstream” in families and communities to create and ensure sustainable change that is in the best interests of the children concerned.
With regards to Child Labour Monitoring Systems (CLMS), the study demonstrates that inspection functions on the enforcement side should be separated from monitoring functions on the planning side so that the Planning Unit of the lead Ministry is provided an adequate space to champion the CLMS.
The study also shows that exchange visits have proven to be positive experiences in term of the operations of district and community structures as well as partners in addressing development issues, including sustainability of structures through district plans and committees and involvement of communities and their leaders.
Challenges: As demonstrated in the study, the set-up of monitoring systems and organization of communities and the informal sector through CLMS is a promising development in terms of increasing access to child labourers otherwise hidden, and improving the environment for those children employed in the informal sector. However, the development of a monitoring system within the informal sector as part of the national CLMS requires lasting incentives beyond time-bound programmes by worker and employer organizations.
Next steps: Expectations are that beyond the SNAP Malawi Project, future programmes and players in combating child labour in Malawi should be able to benefit from these practices.


47) El trabajo no es cosa de chicos


Period of implementation: Desde 2011

Where: Argentina

Main focus: Integracción de las políticas públicas para afrontar al trabajo infantil

Lead organization: Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social – Comisión Provincial para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil (COPRETI) de la Provincia de Santa Fe

Sitio web: http://www.santafe.gov.ar/index.php/plan_estrategico_provincial



Results: 500 niños y niñas de 0 a 5 años de edad, hijos de trabajadores rurales temporarios y/o pertenecientes a la agricultura familiar de las zonas productivas abordadas; y hermanos mayores de los niños y niñas vinculados a la iniciativa.

Contexto y objetivo: La prevención y erradicación del trabajo infantil y las peores formas de trabajo adolescente es uno de los objetivos prioritarios de la Agenda de Trabajo Decente de la provincia de Santa Fe. La Provincia de Santa Fe adoptó la definición de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) que entiende al trabajo infantil como “toda actividad económica y/o estrategia de supervivencia, remunerada o no, realizada por niñas y niños, por debajo de la edad mínima de admisión al empleo o trabajo, o que no han finalizado la escolaridad obligatoria o que no haya cumplido los 18 años si se trata de trabajo peligroso”. En la provincia de Santa Fe, la Ley 12967/2009 de Promoción y Protección Integral de los Derechos de los Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes brinda un amplio marco de derechos para los niños, niñas y adolescentes, entre 0 y 18 años. La Ley también reconoce formalmente sus derechos y define criterios y modos de actuación del Estado provincial, adecuados al modelo de protección integral de derechos. En este marco se inscribe el funcionamiento de la Comisión Provincial para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil (CoPreTi) que está conformada por varios organismos del Estado provincial, organismos de Estados municipales, asociaciones gremiales, empresas y cámaras de empleadores, así como por diferentes organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG) que trabajan la problemática del trabajo infantil. Esta Comisión es única en su tipo en el país con un carácter cuatripartito, ya que incorpora a las ONG vinculadas a la problemática, otorgándole mayor dinamismo y una mirada más amplia a la hora de adoptar decisiones. Para un mejor funcionamiento y atendiendo a realidades completamente diferentes, se trabaja en dos subcomisiones: trabajo infantil urbano y trabajo infantil rural. En este sentido el Gobierno de Santa Fe promueve el desarrollo de políticas públicas de generación de empleo y fortalecimiento familiar con el fin de que garanticen el derecho a la educación y al desarrollo integral de niños y niñas, como el eje articulador para la erradicación del trabajo infantil y adolescente.
Metodologia: El relevamiento permitió iniciar la definición de prioridades y espacios relevantes donde situaciones de TI o Trabajo Infantil Doméstico se sostienen a través de indicadores precisos y observables (indicadores laborales, sociales, productivos, educativos o del sistema de salud). En este camino el abordaje integral para la protección infancia en zonas de cosecha se lleva a cabo a través de la modalidad de Centros de Cuidado Infantil (CCI). La protección de la primera infancia implica un cronograma de planificación basado en los principios de: acceso a la salud (equipo médico, enfermería, nutricionista, pediatría, asistente social, psicóloga), descanso (los CCI son equipados con cunas y camas para cada niño y niña en forma sectorizada), juego y recreación (cada CCI desarrolla talleres de juego y recreación durante cada jornada diaria), cuidado del cuerpo e higienización (las madres cuidadoras abordan en modo particular temas vinculados con cuidado del propio cuerpo y tareas periódicas de aseo). En los casos de los CCI con apoyo escolar o jornada escolar extendida, los auxiliares docentes desarrollan espacios para lectura, escritura y ejercicios derivados de las instituciones educativas vinculadas.

Asi, el objetivo general del programa es contribuir a la erradicación del Trabajo Infantil Doméstico en zonas de cosecha con demanda de mano de obra intensiva y familiar en las zonas productivas de algodón, azúcar, frutillas, zanahorias, batatas y basurales de residuos en la Provincia de Santa Fe, en los sectores de actividad rural con mano de obra intensiva informal. Cada CCI está pensado y diseñado como herramienta focalizada al territorio abordado. El abordaje integral de su intervención como modo de abordaje integral, incluye: un plan de incidencia que consiste en la definición de una serie de componentes o pasos que contribuyen a precisar y definir los problemas, los objetivos, las acciones y los recursos necesarios para promover un determinado cambio en políticas públicas. Generalmente, el plan se plasma en un documento que visualiza el proceso de cambio que buscamos gestionar y nos permite enfocar y priorizar nuestro tiempo, conocimientos y recursos disponibles. Ademas, la noción de cuidado social significa entender al cuidado en términos de organización social y permite complementar el análisis de los aspectos microsociales con un examen del rol de las políticas sociales en la regulación de las relaciones, actividades y responsabilidades del cuidado, así como el modo en que dichas estrategias se organizan.


Lecciones aprendidas: Resulta importante enfatizar el enfoque de derechos aplicado a la noción de cuidado infantil. En líneas generales, el enfoque de derechos parte de considerar el marco conceptual de los derechos humanos, entendiendo que ofrece un sistema coherente de principios factible de ser aplicado a las políticas de desarrollo. Este enfoque supone, también, no restringirlo a las mujeres, sino reconocerlo para todos en tanto ciudadanos. En este sentido, supone promover la integralidad y universalidad del cuidado infantil. Implica entender al cuidado infantil como una preocupación central de las sociedades que no se resuelve únicamente generando una mayor oferta de cuidado, si bien esto es indispensable, sino universalizando la responsabilidad, la obligación y los recursos necesarios para el cuidado. Por supuesto, esto implicará importantes cambios culturales en la manera en que se entiende la división sexual del trabajo y la organización misma del mundo laboral.

Al igual que el enfoque de derechos, se basa en la noción de ciudadanía y de la obligación estatal de acudir a la satisfacción de los derechos, sumando la necesidad del involucramiento y participación de la sociedad. Así, la noción de integración de servicios sociales parte de reconocer la posibilidad de que la satisfacción de un derecho sin atender a las restantes se encuentra amenazada en su eficacia y sostenibilidad.

Esta noción se inserta en un paradigma de protección que supera la vieja discusión entre políticas universales y focalizadas, armonizando las aspiraciones de desarrollo humano, equidad e igualdad, partiendo de la obligación de que toda población goce de ciertos niveles socialmente definidos de bienestar.
Desafios: Consolidar la articulación intra gubernamental (provincial, municipio, comunas) y por supuesto Nación para la implementación efectiva de estrategias de Erradicación de TI. Sostener y profundizar los espacios de diálogo social entre gobierno, capital y trabajo en coyunturas de mediano y plazo para la erradicación del TI.
Proximos pasos: Dentre los proximos pasos de la iniciativa, se destaca la rendición de cuentas para proporcionar a los donantes y decisores clave una medida concreta del progreso y los logros alcanzados en comparación con los resultados e impactos proyectados. Además, el apoyo a la gestión operativa que retroalimenta la implementación de los proyectos y programas de la organización, el apoyo a la gestión estratégica, brindando información sobre potenciales oportunidades para el futuro y sobre las estrategias que deben ajustarse, la creación de conocimiento sobre las estrategias que funcionan en general bajo diferentes contextos y facilita el desarrollo de estrategias más eficaces en el futuro, e finalmente el empoderamiento que aumenta las destrezas de planificación estratégica de los participantes, entre los cuales podría haber miembros del personal del programa u otros interesados (entre éstos, los beneficiarios).


48) Programa de Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Adolescente Trabajador


Period of implementation: Desde 2003

Where: Bolivia

Main focus: Proteccion social, educación y engajamento del sector privado de niños y niñas trabajadores en la zafra de caña de azúcar

Lead organization: Gobierno Autónomo Departamental de Santa Cruz de la Sierra

Sitio web: http://www.santacruz.gob.bo/



Results: A través del Proyecto de las Escuelas Móviles, se logra reinsertar 360 niños y niñas al sistema educativo de los 955 niños y niñas comprendidos en edad escolar en los campamentos zafreros identificados; clínica móvil con equipo técnico asistencial médico, odontológico y de enfermería para ofrecer acciones de promoción, prevención y asistencia a enfermos, en sus fuentes o áreas de trabajo, con atención en cuatro provincias (12 municipios) en las cuales se encuentran asentados los campamentos de zafreros y sus familias; construcción de escuelas, vivienda para maestros, dotación de material escolar, bibliotecas e instalación de redes de agua potable; convenios con los empresarios cañeros que asumen el traslado de los NN desde sus campamentos a las unidades educativas más cercanas, involucrando alrededor de 200 empresarios en este proceso; campañas de otorgación de certificados de nacimiento a mas de 3500 niños y niñas menores de 12 años; mejoramiento de viviendas, servicios básicos disponibles, atención personalizada en educación, atención en salud y beneficio de los seguros: materno infantil, binomio madre-niño.


Contexto y objectivo: Bolivia, ratifica el Convenio núm. 138 sobre la edad mínima y el Convenio núm. 182 sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil en 1997 y 2003, respectivamente, y participa en la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño en 1990; además, se establece la erradicación en la Constitución Política del Estado. El Departamento de Santa Cruz, aglutina a 11 Municipios zafreros, de los 56 municipios existentes, en los cuales hay zafra de caña de azúcar. Muchas familias se trasladan a la zafra en busca de un sustento para sus familias. En condiciones adversas, migran temporalmente para ofrecer su mano de obra, por la insuficiente remuneración deciden ser acompañados de su familia, quienes trabajan en condición de “ayudante” para incrementar sus ingresos. Este traslado hace que los niños, niñas y adolescentes vivan en condiciones sociales y ambientales inadecuadas, sin que se garantice sus derechos fundamentales, principalmente abandonan la escuela para incorporarse a las labores zafreras.

El Gobierno Autónomo Departamental de Santa Cruz, la Dirección Departamental del Trabajo, UNICEF, el Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior (IBCE), Asociación para Erradicación a la Pobreza (APEP), Fundación Infancia Digna (INDI), Municipios con influencia cañera: Saavedra, Montero, Fernández Alonzo, Minero, Portachuelo y Okinawa, empresas azucareras como UNAGRO, Guabirá y Santa Cecilia el 2010, conformaron una red interinstitucional denominada "Hagamos Equipo" para proteger los derechos de los niños, niñas y adolescentes, erradicando el trabajo infantil en zonas cañeras de Santa Cruz, comprometiendo a las empresas a partir de la responsabilidad social empresarial, y fortaleciendo a las instituciones de protección de derechos y redes interinstitucionales e implementando el TRIPLE SELLO: libre de trabajo forzoso, libre de trabajo discriminatorios, libre de trabajo infantil, lanzándose la campaña de certificación del cañero libre de trabajo infantil, en octubre del 2011 se logra la certificación de 383 cañeros y 480 certificados de predios productores de caña.


Metodologia: En el Departamento de Santa Cruz se conforma la Sub Comisión Interinstitucional de Erradicación progresiva de TI SCIEPTI el 1 de julio de 2003, con dos objetivos: 1) la erradicación progresiva del trabajo infantil en la zafra de la caña de azúcar, 2) impulsar políticas públicas a nivel nacional para resolver la pobreza dentro del núcleo familiar zafrero.

Durante 2003 y 2004, la Jefatura Departamental de Trabajo y CIEPTI junto al CODAPE desarrollan la socialización del plan en capitales de Departamento y la ejecución del PENEPTI. El Gobierno Autónomo Departamental de Santa Cruz a través del Servicio de Políticas Sociales (SEDEPOS - Santa Cruz) forma parte de la Subcomisión Departamental de Erradicación del Trabajo infantil desde su creación (julio de 2003), enfocando en el mandato establecido y en el marco de sus competencias institucionales, trabaja con el objetivo de erradicar el trabajo infantil en una de sus peores formas, constituido por el trabajo en la zafra de caña de azúcar. Con participación del Ministerio del Trabajo y los Municipios de Montero, Minero, Saavedra, las ONGs: COPADE, PASOC, PRONANFA, elaboran un POA interinstitucional para la erradicación progresiva del Trabajo Infantil en el Departamento.

El 2005, después de realizar la evaluación de medio término del PNEPTI, El Ministerio del Trabajo, UNICEF, OIT, la Jefatura Departamental y la CIEPTI, elaboran el Plan Trienal nacional de erradicación progresiva del Trabajo Infantil 2006-2008. El Ministerio del Trabajo, UNICEF y SCIEPTI ejecutan el plan trienal nacional de erradicación progresiva del Trabajo Infantil.

El 2007, UNICEF y la SCIEPTI en el Departamento de Santa Cruz encargan a la Fundación Hombres Nuevos, el fortalecimiento a la educación en Municipios Zafreros.

Del 2008 al 2010, a través de un acuerdo del Gobierno Departamental de Santa Cruz con UNICEF, se incluye el componente de erradicación progresiva del trabajo infantil en la Programación Operativa Anual con SEDEGES, UNICEF, la SCIEPTI y el Servicio Departamental de Políticas Sociales (SEDEPOS) en alianza estratégicas con la Asociación Para Erradicación a la Pobreza (APEP), Fundación Infancia Digna (INDI) y Asociación Española para la Enseñanza de Ciencias de la Tierra (AEPECT), ponen en ejecución un Plan para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil, a partir de la protección integral de derecho y el fortalecimiento de entidades de protección.

El Consejo Rector de Normalización dictamina normas del triple sello: “libre de trabajo infantil (27 noviembre 2008), libre de discriminación (18 diciembre 2008) y libre de trabajo forzoso (23 julio 2009)”. El 2011, se realiza la certificación del Triple Sello, libre de trabajo infantil, a más de 480 cañeros. Bajo la consigna “Acuerdo Social por los Derechos de la Niñez y Adolescencia en el Departamento de Santa Cruz, °Todos los niños y las niñas con todos sus derechos al 2025°, se firma el Convenio de Cooperación Interinstitucional por el cumplimiento de los Derechos de la Infancia, Niñez y Adolescencia (13 de Abril 2012).


Lecciones aprendidas: Es necesario trabajar intersectorialmente para mejorar los servicios básicos en los campamentos zafreros. Falta mucha educación primordialmente e hay que buscar la colaboración intersectorial para superar muchos obstáculos, como los pésimos accesos a los campos zafreros, insuficientes ítems de médicos, profesores y otros.

En algunos lugares el enfoque de género ha sido tomado en cuenta, donde ya la mujer recibe el mismo salario por el mismo trabajo que realiza un varón. Pero aún existen muchos donde la mujer no es aceptada para realizar el trabajo y si se la acepta no recibe una remuneración igualitaria.


Desafios: El sistema de información es insuficiente, asi mismo la infraestructura, equipamiento y material para el desarrollo de los programas. El entorno de trabajo a nivel de decisores políticos, principalmente en los municipios, por el tiempo de la experiencia se enfrenta a cambios permanentes tanto de autoridades como de técnicos que afecta la marcha del plan.
Proximos pasos: La interrelación de todos y cada uno de los actores institucionales y personales permite objetivamente la sostenibilidad de la experiencia, a través del diálogo por un mismo objetivo: el bienestar de los NNAs en condiciones dignas, humanas y libres.

49) Memes, memes everywhere


Period of implementation: Desde 2010

Where: Costa Rica

Main focus: Conscienciacion social y participación de niños, niñas y adolescentes vulnerables à explotación sexual

Lead organization: Patronato Nacional de la Infancia sitioweb: http://www.pani.go.cr/

Results: Sensibilización y denuncia (espacio de participación real) de los adolescentes en temas de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas; 43.000 fans de la página interactuando, solicitando información, realizando denuncias confidenciales, conociendo los temas de violación de derechos como trabajo infantil y sus peores formas.


Contexto y objetivo: El Patronato Nacional de la Infancia (PANI) es el ente rector en derechos de niñez y adolescencia. En lo que respecta a trabajo infantil y sus peores formas, atiende los casos de trabajo infantil de niños y niñas por debajo de la edad mínima de admisión al empleo (15 años) y de explotación sexual comercial y trata de todas las personas menores de 18 años. Además de atención, desde el año 2008 se han llevado a cabo de forma sistemática proyectos de prevención del trabajo infantil y sus peores formas (explotación sexual comercial y trata) en localidades capacitando a las personas adultas y menores de edad de las comunidades y a funcionarios, así como la sensibilización. A la raíz de la preocupación e interés de otorgar participación y protagonismo a los adolescentes con respecto a sus derechos para prevenir situaciones de vulnerabilidad con un lenguaje y un medio accesible y atractivo para ellos, en el marco del Plan Nacional contra la explotación sexual comercial 2008-2010, las instituciones deciden aprovechar el recurso de las redes sociales para divulgar y prevenir situaciones de explotación. Posteriormente, los temas se amplían a todas las situaciones de vulnerabilidad de niñas, niños y adolescentes.
Metodologia: El diseño de la herramienta fue consultado con adolecentes de la Red Nacional de adolescentes de las juntas de protección a la niñez y la adolescencia, así como con los y las integrantes de la subcomisión de prevención de la Comisión Nacional contra explotación sexual comercial. En una primera etapa, se atrajo a los adolescentes con banners publicados en Facebook dirigidos a las personas de 13 a 17 años: contenían mensajes de alta vulnerabilidad a explotación sexual comercial y trata. Los más de 5.000 clics en los primeros tres meses evidencian la alta vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a este tipo de delitos en redes sociales.

Durante dos años (2008-2010), el PANI dinamiza la página con videos, comentarios y orientaciones; y las personas menores de edad comienzan a opinar, a realizar denuncias y a retroalimentar encuestas. Así, se evidencia el éxito de la estrategia, lo que impulsa a la institución a dar sostenimiento al proyecto. En 2010, al vencer el Plan nacional contra la explotación sexual comercial, se replantea la interfaz con previa consulta a los adolescentes.

Por tanto en esta segunda etapa, se emplea una forma de comunicación más llamativa para los adolescentes, lo que genera más participación, que se concreta en comentarios, creación de “memes”, consultas y denuncias sobre trabajo infantil y sus peores formas. Entonces, el número de fans se incrementa de forma exponencial por recomendación de los mismos adolescentes. En ambas etapas, el PANI da curso a las denuncias de los adolescentes (investigación y atención).

En la primera etapa (2008-2010), le da seguimiento la Secretaría Técnica de la CONACOES con reportes de cumplimiento trimestrales. En la segunda etapa (a partir de 2011) la Gerencia Técnica del PANI da el seguimiento: evalúa el proceso, emite reportes al Departamento de Planificación y Desarrollo Institucional y coordinación con la Secretaría Técnica de la CONACOES. Además, el Centro de Orientación e Información del PANI que recibe las denuncias, las refiere la oficina del PANI correspondiente (por localización geográfica).


Lecciones aprendidas: Un proyecto dirigido a adolescentes debe emplear el lenguaje y usar medios y actividades que les sean atractivos y vigentes. La adecuación de los medios y el tipo de contenidos debe ser constante para mantener su vigencia y atractivo.
Desafios: Resistencia inicial en los funcionarios de algunas instituciones ante una propuesta novedosa (con lenguaje ajeno a los adultos); financiamiento permanente y exclusivo para la sostenibilidad del proyecto; equipo técnico interdisciplinario permanente para el proyecto y que alimente la página.
Proximos pasos: La sostenibilidad del proyecto está garantizado en tres pilares: político, económico y técnico. El PANI ha planificado el proyecto como un programa institucional para 2013, que se visualice en los planes operativos con su debido financiamiento y recursos humanos. El PANI ha sumido el financiamiento del proyecto y se está programando su ampliación con Facebook regionales que sean linkeados con el nacional para una mejor cobertura y participación.

50) Ambientes educativos amigables para la niñez trabajadora


Period of implementation: Desde el 2012

Where: Guatemala

Main focus: Educacion para el afrontamiento del trabajo infantil en comunidades indigenas

Lead organization: Programas y Proyectos de Desarrollo Integral (PRODI)

contacto: prodiguatemala@gmail.com



Results: El rendimiento académico de los niños y niñas mejoró en un 86%; la comunidad, los padres y madres de familia se sensibilizarán ante la realidad social, cultural y educativa de la niñez trabajadora; el mapeo de los trabajos más frecuentes que realizan los niños y niñas; desarrollo de una estrategia educativa en las escuelas rurales que beneficia a la niñez trabajadora en los aspectos siguientes: a) aprovechamiento del tiempo de aprendizaje, b) uso de materiales educativos, c) procesos de formación in situ, d) seguimiento y monitoreo en el aula, la escuela y comunidad y e) empoderamiento y protagonismo de la niñez trabajadora por medio de diversos eventos a nivel comunitario y municipal; docentes y directores se comprometen a trabajar a favor de la erradicación del trabajo infantil, por medio de la puesta en marcha de la estrategia pedagógica y el proyecto de mejoramiento escolar.


Contexto y objetivo: En el contexto rural, de pobreza y extrema pobreza, la población indígena del grupo étnico Kaqchiquel en el departamento de Chimaltenango, Guatemala, tiene a su población infantil cursando a los grados de la educación primaria (básica), en un total 2500 niños y niñas. La experiencia surge debido a la necesidad de atender a la niñez trabajadora con una estrategia de trabajo educativo mediada de forma pedagógica, lo que permite la permanencia de los niños y niñas en las escuelas. Se desarrolla en escuelas públicas, se trabajan materiales educativos y talleres de formación que facilita a la comunidad educativa participar, involucrarse y comprometerse en la erradicación del trabajo infantil. Con la meta de retirar el 10% de 2500 niños y niñas del trabajo infantil explotador, ubicados en áreas rurales del departamento de Chimaltenango, se ha diseñado una metodología que facilita a la niñez trabajadora permanecer en la escuela y culminar sus estudios de la educación primaria. Hasta el momento se ha logrado que el 86% de los niños y las niñas permanezcan en las escuelas. El objetivo es Involucrar, hacer participar y comprometer a la comunidad educativa hacía la erradicación del trabajo infantil, por medio de los agentes educativos y agentes sociales de las comunidades atendidas.
Metodologia: La iniciativa se desarrolló en las seguientes dimensiones:

a) Se formó a los niños y niñas en diversos temas por medio de talleres, foros, diálogos municipales, eventos artísticos, culturales, sociales y académicos. Asimismo, se abrieron espacios de participación en radios comunitarias y medios de comunicación local, par que los mismos niños y niñas participaran exponiendo sus expectativas de vida.

b) Se formó a los padres y madres de familia en temas referidos a los derechos de la niñez, niñez trabajadora y estrategias de atención a nivel comunitario para contribuir a la erradicación del trabajo infantil. Además, se dotó a los niños y niñas de materiales educativos, culturales, de higiene y saneamiento, deportivos y otros que beneficiarán su proceso de formación.

c) Se dotó a los docentes de materiales educativos y de una serie de talleres que les permitiera empoderarse de la estrategia pedagógica y de las metodologías de aprendizaje.

d) Se trabajó conjuntamente con los directores estrategias para desarrollar el Proyecto Educativo de Mejoramiento enfocado en la promoción y sensibilización para contribuir a la erradicación del trabajo infantil.

e) Se diseñaron y proporcionaron unidades de aprendizaje mediadas para la nivelación y refuerzo escolar, así como, una serie de herramientas que le permite a la niñez mejorar sus niveles de formación y lograr la promoción de un grado a otro.

f) Se atendió a la niñez trabajadora por medio de tutores, quienes apoyaron los procesos de nivelación y refuerzo escolar, utilizando los materiales elaborados.

Se trabaja con la metodología ERCA que facilita a la comunidad educativa adquirir nuevos conocimientos partiendo de las experiencias y las reflexiones que se realizan en torno a temas que afectan a la niñez trabajadora, luego se propician espacios para la aplicación del conocimiento en el ámbito familia, escolar y comunitario. Asimismo, se propician espacios para la aplicación de las estrategias y el desarrollo de las actividades conducidas especialmente por la niñez trabajadora.

Con los niños y las niñas se desarrollan procesos de aprendizaje que parten de las fases y procesos siguientes: a) aprestamiento (como un proceso permanente y oportuno que facilita el logro de nuevos conocimientos), b) desarrollo de contenidos relacionados al currículo nacional base, c) aplicación práctica de los contenidos transmitidos, d) apropiación del aprendizaje por medio de actividades lúdicas, prácticas, culturales y sociales y f) procesos de evaluación desarrollados de forma bimensual que permiten identificar el logro de las competencias para las áreas curriculares.

Los equipos técnicos de campo realizan visitas constantes a las comunidades y a las escuelas y aplican durante las visitas los instrumentos de monitoreo diseñados por la Fundación Telefónica. Estos instrumentos de aplican a padres de familia, niños, niñas, docentes, directores y comunidad en general. Se ingresan los datos al sistema y se procesan, de esa manera se evalúa el desarrollo del Programa, así como, el seguimiento oportuno cada mes, cada trimestre y cada fin de año.


Lecciones aprendidas: a) La importancia de trabajar de forma integrada con los actores sociales y los agentes educativos; b) Los procesos de formación dirigidos a la familia, la escuela y comunidad; c) Los procesos de atención directa a la niñez trabajadora por medio de becas que permite la permanencia de los niños y las niñas en las escuelas; d) La participación e involucramiento de los actores sociales y agentes educativos, especialmente porque se empoderan con los procesos de trabajo por medio del programa de formación, garantiza la apropiación de los procesos y por tanto, la sostenibilidad.
Desafios: Entre otros, la sensibilización sobre las consecuencias negativas del trabajo infantil; la formación del personal docente en estrategias pedagógicas que faciliten la atención de la niña trabajadora; y la gestión de proyectos dirigidos a la infancia por parte de los Consejos Educativos y los Consejos de Desarrollo, y otras autoridades locales.
Proximos pasos: El programa ataca a la raíz del problema al procurar cambios en el sistema educativo y propicia la aplicación de la reforma educativa en el aula, a través de la estrategia pedagógica: formación, materiales mediados, recursos y enfoques de trabajo en el aula.

51)Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades (PDHO)


Period of implementation: Desde 1997

Where: Mexico

Main focus: Politicas integradas de asistencia social, educación y salud para famílias vulnerables a la explotacion laboral de sus niños y niñas

Lead organization: Coordinación Nacional del Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades

Sitio web: http://www.oportunidades.gob.mx/Portal/



http://evaluacion.oportunidades.gob.mx:8010/es/index.php

Results: Más del 17.4% de los niños (hombres) que abandonaban la primaria dejan de hacerlo como resultado de Oportunidades en zonas rurales; los jóvenes beneficiarios rurales de 15-19 años acumularon en promedio un grado adicional de escolaridad en comparación a los no beneficiarios en 6 años de exposición al Programa: 14% en el conjunto de grados escolares completados; aumento de la probabilidad de entrar a la secundaria, en zonas rurales: niñas de 12 y 13 años - 32.5% y 25.7%; niños de 12 y 14 años - 41.5% y 32.9%; aumento de 24% en la inscripción en secundaria en el medio rural - 28.7% niñas y 15.7% niños; 85% de aumento en la inscripción a primer año de bachillerato en zonas rurales y 10.1% en zonas urbanas; disminución de cerca del 40% de participación en el mercado laboral para niños de 12-13 años de hogares beneficiarios rurales; probabilidad 35% y 29% más baja de trabajar para los niños de 16 y 20 al momento de la medición (año 2003, equivalente a 10 y 14 años en 1997) para los niños de hogares incorporados desde el principio del Programa vs. no beneficiarios; reducción de la brecha de 83 mujeres inscritas por cada 100 hombres en escuelas secundarias rurales, para hasta 96 mujeres por cada 100 hombres inscritos en el periodo de 2002-2003.


Contexto y objetivo: La crisis económica de 1994-1995 agravó la situación de pobreza y desigualdad que ya se vivía en México. El país enfrentaba una crisis económica que no permitía emplear las finanzas públicas a gran escala para invertir en la política social, contaba con instrumentos de combate a la pobreza que en el momento se mostraban altamente ineficaces, especialmente los subsidios alimentarios, además alrededor de uno de cada cinco mexicanos vivía en pobreza extrema y el panorama sugería que en el corto plazo aumentaría la población en esta condición y se agravaría la situación de quienes ya padecían este fenómeno, fomentando la reproducción de un ciclo intergeneracional de la pobreza. La situación descrita para 1995 hizo necesaria la elaboración de políticas en dos sentidos. Primero, buscar la estabilidad económica, y segundo, elaborar políticas sociales nuevas y rediseñar las existentes para mejorar la condición de vida de millones de familias mexicanas que se encontraban en situación de pobreza. Es aquí donde comienza el análisis que culminaría en la creación del Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación (PROGRESA), actualmente Programa Oportunidades.

Actualmente, el Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades (PDHO) tiene como fin: “Contribuir a la ruptura del ciclo intergeneracional de la pobreza, desarrollando las capacidades de educación salud y nutrición de las familias beneficiarias de Oportunidades.” Cuyo propósito se centra en que las familias beneficiarias en condiciones de pobreza desarrollen sus capacidades de educación salud y nutrición. Esto mediante una serie de acciones y estrategias que consisten en:

• Otorgar apoyos educativos crecientes en educación básica y media superior a los niños, niñas y jóvenes de las familias beneficiarias, con el fin de fomentar su inscripción y asistencia regular a la escuela, y consecuentemente la terminación de dichos niveles educativos.

• Asegurar el acceso al Paquete Básico Garantizado de Salud a las familias beneficiarias, con el propósito de impulsar el uso de los servicios de salud preventivos y el autocuidado de la salud y nutrición de todos sus integrantes.

• Proporcionar apoyos a las familias beneficiarias para mejorar la alimentación y nutrición de todos sus integrantes, con énfasis en la población más vulnerable como lo son niños y niñas, mujeres embarazadas y en periodo de lactancia;

• Fomentar el compromiso con los objetivos del Programa y la participación activa de todos los integrantes de las familias beneficiarias mediante el cumplimiento de las corresponsabilidades asociadas a las intervenciones del Programa.


Metodologia: Durante 1995 a 1997 se desarrolló un intenso trabajo de investigación sobre el contexto de la pobreza en el país, y la mejor estrategia destinada a desarrollar los instrumentos para combatirla. Se puso en marcha un programa piloto en el estado de Campeche para probar la nueva estrategia de combate a la pobreza, cuyos resultados fueron alentadores. Se analizaron temas tales como: la identificación y selección de familias beneficiarias, la forma de hacer llegar los recursos a las familias (transferencias monetarias o en especie) y los montos de los apoyos. Los principales lineamientos operativos para el desarrollo de las acciones de Oportunidades son:

1. Identificación de las familias beneficiarias: con una evaluación de sus condiciones socioeconómicas que comprende dos etapas: i) Selección de localidades, principalmente de zonas marginadas; y, ii) la identificación de cada uno de los hogares, que consiste en la evaluación individual, aplicando un sistema de puntajes.

2. Características de los apoyos:

a. Componente educativo: inscripción, permanencia y asistencia regular a la educación primaria, secundaria y media superior de los hijos de las familias beneficiarias; becas educativas y apoyos para la adquisición de útiles escolares y para los becarios de educación media superior, un incentivo monetario.

b. El componente de salud: Paquete Básico Garantizado de Salud, el cual constituye un beneficio irreductible, con base en las Cartillas Nacionales de Salud, de acuerdo con la edad, sexo y evento de vida de cada persona; mejor nutrición de la población beneficiaria, en especial para prevenir y atender la malnutrición desde la etapa de gestación y de las mujeres embarazadas y en lactancia; fomentar y mejorar el autocuidado con la comunicación educativa en salud, priorizando la educación alimentaria nutricional, la promoción de la salud y la prevención de enfermedades.

c. Componente alimentario: apoyos monetarios directos mensuales a las familias beneficiarias, para contribuir a que mejoren la cantidad, calidad y diversidad de su alimentación; entrega mensual o bimestral de suplementos alimenticios para mujeres embarazadas y en periodo de lactancia.

3. Entrega de los apoyos monetarios: La entrega bimestral de apoyos en efectivo a través de instituciones liquidadoras (bancos y cajas de ahorro, etc.) mediante depósitos en cuentas personalizadas.

4. Corresponsabilidad de las familias beneficiarias: requisito indispensable para que las familias reciban sus apoyos monetarios, entre ellas, las más relevantes son:

a. Inscribir a los menores de 18 años, en las escuelas de educación primaria, secundaria y media superior.

b. Todos los integrantes de la familia beneficiaria deben asistir a sus citas programadas en los servicios de salud, incluyendo los adultos mayores.

5. Conformación de los Comités de Promoción Comunitaria: Son instancias de organización social de las titulares beneficiarias del Programa. Están integrados por las vocales de Educación, Salud, Nutrición y Vigilancia, son elegidas entre las mismas titulares. Las vocales contribuyen a establecer un vínculo entre las familias beneficiarias y el personal de los servicios de salud, educación y de la Coordinación Nacional, a efecto de canalizar sus peticiones y sugerencias, fortalecer las acciones de nutrición, contraloría social y transparencia del Programa.

El Modelo de Seguimiento Operativo convenido conjuntamente con los Sectores de Salud y Educación y aprobado por el Comité Técnico de la Coordinación Nacional permite obtener información detallada sobre el estado de la operación, con el propósito de apoyar la toma de decisiones, la detección de desviaciones operativas e implementar acciones de mejora continua de los procesos operativos del Programa a través de la generación y análisis de indicadores.

Otro elemento muy relevante en materia de evaluación y monitoreo, es la Matriz de Indicadores, que se inserta en el sistema de evaluación al desempeño dirigido por la SHCP. En la Matriz de Indicadores o de Marco Lógico se conjuntan los indicadores que resumen los principales procesos, actividades y resultados esperados de programas o proyectos. Los valores de estos indicadores clave se reportan con una frecuencia de medición bimestral, trimestral, semestral, anual o quinquenal, dependiendo de la naturaleza del dato y la fuente de información, pudiendo ser interna (como el mismo padrón de beneficiarios para el caso de Progresa-Oportunidades) o externa (como el censo de población o la ENIGH).

La evaluación de los efectos en el largo plazo del Oportunidades se realiza través de asesorías externas y es llevada a cabo por consultorías e instituciones académicas tanto públicas como privadas, nacionales e internacionales, y con esto se utiliza sus hallazgos para efectuar los cambios necesarios para incrementar su efectividad.


Lecciones aprendidas: El programa confirma la importância de la formalización de la coordinación interinstitucional, de garantizar la cobertura de los servicios para la atención de la población objetivo de la intervención, de garantizar la calidad de los servicios otorgados, del desarrollo de un sistema de monitoreo y evaluación previo a la puesta en marcha de la intervención, de garantizar el presupuesto anual del programa de manera que la intervención pueda sostenerse el tiempo necesario para observar impactos de mediano plazo en las condiciones de vida de la población atendida, y del desarrollo de un marco normativo que le otorgue transparencia y legalidad a los procesos y acciones de la intervención.
Desafios: Hay dificultad para mantener en la escuela a los niños y niñas conforme aumenta la edad del destinatario del apoyo educativo, dado que es más difícil que la beca compita con un salario, por las necesidades económicas de los hogares beneficiarios del PDHO.
Proximos pasos: El Programa Oportunidades cuenta con el consenso de las diversas fuerzas políticas representadas en la Cámara de Diputados, al aprobar año con año los recursos y las metas de cobertura del programa. En específico, algunos de los factores que ayudan a explicar las perspectivas de sostenibilidad del programa son:

  • Generación de abundante información fácilmente accesible.

  • Elaboración de Lineamientos operativos / Reglas de operación detalladas y apego estricto a ellas; en particular, lo relativo a la selección de beneficiarios.

  • Proceso de involucramiento del Congreso, al brindar información para que obtengan un mayor conocimiento de la operación del programa y el ejercicio de sus recursos financieros.

  • Evaluación externa de impacto que genera insumos que sirven de base para una toma de decisiones más sólida y objetiva, así como evidencia respecto al logro de los objetivos

  • No vincular al Programa en actividades políticas o partidistas

  • Suspensión de entrega de apoyos previo a elecciones federales o estatales.


52) Protegiendo a trabajadores infantiles doméstico del abuso y explotación


Period of implementation: 2008 a 2012

Where: Perú

Main focus: Social mobilization of adolescents involved with child domestic labour

Lead organization: Asociación Grupo de Trabajo Redes (AGTR) sitioweb: http://www.gruporedes.org/

http://www.gruporedes.org/userfiles/file/Publicaciones%20AGTR/AGTR2010%20-%20TID%20Percepciones%20de%20ni%C3%B1as,%20ni%C3%B1os%20y%20adolescentes.pdf)

Results: De parte de los y las adolescentes, mayor identificación y comprensión de sus derechos, mejora de su rendimiento escolar y relaciones familiares; de parte de sus familias, apoyo para la mejora del rendimiento escolar, compromiso por la mejora de la comunicación y el buen trato, y el emprendimiento de acciones que ayuden al retiro del trabajo o mejora de condiciones laborales en sus hijas; creación de grupos fortalecidos de protección de niñas en TID que cuentan con el respaldo y reconocimiento de las comunidades donde se desempeñan.

Contexto y objetivo: Perú es un país con un crecimiento económico sostenido desde hace una década aunque con una desigualdad social desatendida. La informalidad reina en buena parte de la actividad económica. Una de las peores situaciones es el trabajo infantil, y en especial el trabajo infantil doméstico (TID). De acuerdo a la OIT y el Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INEI), al 2001 se registraron 110 mil niñas, niños y adolescentes involucrados en esta actividad, 79% de los cuales eran mujeres. El trabajo infantil en Perú tiene como causa no sólo la situación de pobreza sino también el hecho de que en la cultura peruana se piensa que el trabajo infantil es formativo y, en el caso del trabajo en servicio doméstico, un aprendizaje de roles de género para las niñas. Más aun, muchas veces los padres, empleadores y niñas/os no reconocen que lo que realizan es un trabajo, por lo que éste se vuelve “invisible”. Además en el caso de niñas y niños en TID, cuyo trabajo se desempeña en zonas urbanas de bajos ingresos, los empleadores suelen ser vecinos y/o parientes menos pobres.
La Asociación Grupo de Trabajo Redes (AGTR) ha enfocado su labor en el trabajo en servicio doméstico y su equipo de trabajo está integrado por trabajadoras y ex trabajadoras del hogar, profesionales, estudiantes y voluntarios. Los objetivos de su trabajo son: 1. Sensibilizar sobre las consecuencias psicosociales del TID, desarrollando y difundiendo los resultado de una investigación sobre el tema; 2. Desarrollar capacidades de organización y gestión de proyectos en grupos de adolescentes en TID y ex TID en Lima, Cajamarca y Cusco; 3. Brindar buenas prácticas de atención, ofrecidas por adolescentes en TID y ex TID, a más de 500 niñas y niños en TID: refuerzo escolar y actividades recreativas; y 4. Facilitar espacios de discusión sobre políticas de prevención y protección a niñas y niños en TID, con organismos públicos y de la sociedad civil.
Metodologia: Se ha desarrollado la iniciativa en las seguientes dimensiones:

  1. Alianza multinacional coordinado y asesorado por Anti-Slavery International (Reino Unido) en el que participan 6 países: Filipinas, Togo, Tanzania, India, Costa Rica y Perú.

  2. Investigación sobre las consecuencias psicosociales del TID, con entrevistas en profundidad a 404 mujeres y varones, entre los 12 y los 17 años de edad, en el 2009.

  3. Creación y formación permanente de un Comité Asesor para el proyecto, en lo cual participan adolescentes TID y ex TID, y para que incidan en sus comunidades para el desarrollo de capacidades de organización de otros adolescentes

  4. Mini-proyecto a través de pequeños subsidios a grupos de adolescentes en TID y ex TID para que brinden buenas prácticas de atención a niños en TID (biblioteca infantil, ludoteca, Jornadas Dominicales para el refuerzo educativo, actividades de integración y recreación, talleres para el aprendizaje de deberes y derechos, así como visitas a familias y empleadores para promover la comunicación y el buen trato).

  5. Actividades de incidencia para lograr mejores normas legales y su implementación, así como para promover la protección de niñas y niños en TID, con programas de radio, reuniones con autoridades y líderes comunales, y participación en espacios de discusión sobre el TID.

Lecciones aprendidas: Se ha aprendido que es importante tomar tiempo para la planificación de actividades, en especial, cuando estas involucran a organizaciones co-partes y por tanto, es necesario lograr que todas cuenten con los mismos lineamientos y criterios para desenvolverse. Otra lección aprendida está relacionada con el Comité Asesor, y se refiere a la necesidad de ser cuidadosos en los criterios de selección y del perfil de los miembros del comité. Un filtro más fino asegurará la continuidad de las adolescentes y jóvenes en el proyecto por más tiempo.
Desafios: Emprender acciones con los/as empleadores de las niñas y adolescentes en TID.
Proximos pasos: El enfoque del proyecto consideró el involucramiento de la comunidad, autoridades, líderes locales y las propias niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes en TID o ex TID como forma de asegurar la sostenibilidad de los resultados y la continuidad de las actividades. Por un lado, las niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes en TID o ex TID involucradas aseguran que se han considerado las voces de la población beneficiaria. Las comunidades involucradas, con sus autoridades y líderes, aseguran el compromiso para atender y apoyar las acciones en beneficio de las niñas y adolescentes en TID. Y el Gobierno se ha involucrado para asegurar que se continúe mejorando el marco normativo y los planes de atención nacional a niñas y adolescentes en TID, sobre todo en aquellas regiones fuera del alcance de esta experiencia.


53) Programa de Acción Directa de Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil específicamente en la niñez indígena


Period of implementation: Desde 2011

Where: Panamá

Main focus: Politicas integradas para la atención a famílias, niños y niñas indígenas involucrados en trabajo infantil

Lead organization: Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral (MITRADEL)

http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/

Results: A la fecha se cuenta con un total de 1.873 beneficiarios directos, en que se contemplan a los padres, madres y/o responsables de los niños, niñas y adolescentes, autoridades tradicionales, autoridades locales, miembros de la comunidad y educadores.


Contexto y objetivo: La población infantil de 5 a 17 años de acuerdo al censo de población de 2010 se estima en 901,066 a nivel nacional. De este total 146,391 son niños, niñas y adolescentes indígenas. El flagelo del trabajo infantil de los niños, niñas y adolescentes entre los pueblos indígenas, está enmarcado por las costumbres y tradiciones que suelen ser usadas como legitimantes de la explotación infantil. En la Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil 2012, en las comarcas indígenas hay una gran concentración de niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores: de un total de 13,646, encuentrase una tasa porcentual de incidencia de 16.4%.

Los niños, niñas y adolescentes indígenas se dedican específicamente al trabajo agrícola, en labores como siembra, cosecha y venta de la producción, la pesca, ganadería, caza y silvicultura y trabajos forestales incursionan en estas actividades a partir de los 5 años. Las niñas se dedican en su mayoría al trabajo doméstico en casa de terceros. Los niños y niñas indígenas se convierten muchas veces en mano de obra para contribuir a la sobrevivencia familiar, cuando estas tienen que migrar fuera de sus comunidades de origen, abandonando procesos formativos tradiciones y formas de vida específicas.


MITRADEL se propuso como estrategia “Promover a lo largo y ancho de nuestro país, programas de acción directa para la erradicación del trabajo infantil y adolescente en las áreas más sensitivas y de mayor incidencia del trabajo infantil peligroso”. Asi, para aminorar la situación de trabajo infantil en estos territorios, el Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral mediante la Dirección Nacional Contra el Trabajo Infantil y Protección de la Persona Adolescente Trabajadora (DIRETIPPAT), ha emprendido, desde el año 2011, acciones de intervención directa a favor de la población indígena infantil, en situación de trabajo infantil, mediante planes y programas de protección social de niños, niñas y adolescentes y sus familias, sobre la base de lo pactado en la Agenda Hemisférica de Trabajo Decente en la XVI Reunión Regional Americana de la OIT en Brasilia en 2006: Erradicar el Trabajo Infantil Peligroso al 2015 y Abolir el Trabajo Infantil en su totalidad al 2020. La iniciativa Programa de Acción Directa (PAD) tiene como objetivo contribuir  a la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil alentando un espacio en el que los niños, niñas y adolescentes encuentren apoyo académico y psicosocial, con miras a la transformación de los patrones culturales que legitiman su condición de trabajadores.
Metodologia: El Programa de Acción Directa (PAD) es una práctica adelantada por la Dirección Contra el Trabajo Infantil y Protección de la persona Adolescente Trabajadora (DIRETIPPAT), que consiste en la prestación de servicios integrales a niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de trabajo infantil. Dentro de los servicios prestados se incluyen el de refuerzo escolar, apoyo familiar y social capacitación para el trabajo a los padres, madres y/o responsables, actividades lúdicas (deportivas), becas escolares. Actualmente la práctica se lleva a cabo a nivel nacional. Son estrategias para el logro de objetivos

  • Paso 1: Sensibilización y capacitación a las comunidades y autoridades locales.

  • Paso 2: Captación de niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de trabajo infantil o riesgo de ser trabajadores.

  • Paso 3: Brinda vigilancia y aplicación de la legislación en materia de trabajo infantil (inspección de trabajo).

  • Paso 4: Se ofrece atención preventiva en salud.

  • Paso 5: Se garantiza la reinserción y la permanencia al sistema educativo.

Para el logro de los objetivos se han establecido alianza con entidades públicas y privadas, lo cual ha sido central para la prestación de servicios adicionales al de refuerzo escolar. Se ha brindado capacitación para el trabajo a los padres de los menores de edad incluidos en el PAD. Por otro lado en coordinación con organismos no gubernamental tales como Fundación telefónica a través del programa Proniño, Fundación para el Desarrollo Sostenible (FUNDESPA), Casa Esperanza, Fundación Fe y Alegría y el Instituto de Desarrollo Para la Infancia y la Mujer (IDEMI) se han instaurado alianzas para el abordaje y atención de la problemática de trabajo infantil.
Lecciones aprendidas: La iniciativa ha mantenido sostenibilidad como parte de las políticas públicas de prevención y erradicación del trabajo infantil, además de permitir el trabajo a través de un equipo interdisciplinario y la articulación con organismos internacionales, a través de la cooperación técnica, el desarrollo de iniciativas concretas para la intervención en áreas donde la niñez se encuentra en riesgo o en situación de trabajo infantil. El PAD atiende niños, niñas y adolescentes, sus familias y la comunidad a través de un abordaje integral y que puede ser replicado en cualquier área geográfica.
Desafios:

  • La incidencia en las políticas públicas de atención a los pueblos indígenas en general y a los niños y niñas indígenas trabajadores en particular.

  • Realizar actividades de apoyo directo en comunidades con alta incidencia de trabajo infantil, para mejorar:

          • La calidad y acceso de los servicios de educación básica

          • La calidad y acceso de los servicios de salud

          • Promoción de la generación de ingresos para los padres de familia indígenas, dentro de sus comunidades y en base al potencial natural, y cultural tangible e intangible con el que cuentan estos pueblos.

  • Realizar campañas de sensibilización sobre la importancia de la educación y el trabajo infantil como un obstáculo para el desarrollo óptimo de los niños y niñas Indígenas, dirigido a autoridades, congresos, organizaciones y comunidades indígenas en general.

  • Formalizar el PAD en los idiomas indígenas reconocidos por el Estado Panameño.

  • Poder sistematizar la experiencia.



Proximos Pasos: Hay una sostenibilidad en las acciones por parte de cinco instituciones gubernamentales que de forma directa o indirecta coadyuvan al desarrollo integral de los niños, niñas y adolescentes, velando, por la población más vulnerable situada en los territorios indígenas para su desarrollo y crecimiento. Se ha dispuesto presupuesto del Estado en cada institución para la ejecución del Programa de Acción Directa de acuerdo con su corresponsabilidad. Ha permitido realizar un diagnóstico participativo parte como clave para la ejecución de estrategias conducentes a la prevención y erradicación del trabajo infantil. Y se coordina con autoridades locales y tradicionales para asegurar la integración local en el objetivo de erradicar el trabajo infantil, sobre todo las peores formas.

Igualmente ha sido de suma importancia poder intervenir en los territorios indígenas a pesar de no contar con la traducción del PAD en ninguna de lo idiomas aprobados por el Estado: kuna, ngäbe, buglé, emberá, wounaan, naso y teribe. Se cuenta con una base de datos sistematizada de niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores y/o en condición de riesgo social, por provincia, distrito, escuela, edad y escolaridad; entre otros indicadores de importancia que reflejan las características de la población.



Novas para marcelo em 20 oct
54) Modelo de intervención sobre Trabajo infantil en niños y niñas indígenas Guarani Mbya


Period of implementation: 2011 - 2013

Where: Paraguay

Main focus: Proteccion integral a familias y niñez indigena vulnerable al trabajo infantil

Lead organization: Oguasu

sitioweb: http://www.gloobal.net/iepala/gloobal/fichas/ficha.php?entidad=Agentes&id=31764

contacto: oguasu@telesurf.com.py


Results: 90 niños/as y adolescentes indígenas trabajadores reintegrados con sus familias a las comunidades de origen, provenientes de las comunidades de Pindo´i, Ñembiarä, Ypa´u Señorita, Mbarigui y Ka´atymi; 76 adolescentes indígenas capacitados en derechos laborales y asisten regularmente en la escuela; 114 niños/as y adolescentes con capacidades fortalecidas para la expresión creativa con enfoque e identidad cultural; 7 adolescentes indígenas reinsertados en trabajos permitidos; re-vinculación de 350 personas y logró que más de 450 lo hicieran con sus comunidades de origen; atención prestada a 800 personas en distintos casos; 10 pequeños proyectos productivos de cultivos para autoconsumo en las comunidades.


Contexto y objetivo:

La presencia de familias indígenas en la calle con el objeto de mendigar comenzó a ser observado a partir del año 2001 aproximadamente, concomitante con el salto cuantitativo experimentado por la expansión del cultivo de la soja al introducir la tecnología de las simientes transgénicas y la crisis económica de esa época que expandió la pobreza y la miseria en el país. A partir de entonces, cuyas presencias comenzaron con oleadas pasajeras, el fenómeno se expandió y volvió permanente. Los niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) indígenas generalmente no están solos, sino que acompañados de sus respectivas familias. Los NNA acompañan a sus mayores en el mba´é jerué (pedir cosas o recolectar), poreka en el lenguaje de la calle, mendigar para los blancos, en las esquinas de los semáforos y en menor medida casa por casa. En casos más extremos también son utilizados por los mayores para el micro-tráfico de estupefacientes y otros delitos.

El 98% de los indígenas que se encuentran en los espacios públicos urbanos son del Pueblo Mbya y las comunidades mayormente expulsoras son del departamento de Caaguazú,1 aunque también se encuentran en calle y asentamientos urbanos familias que proceden de los departamentos de Guairá, Caazapá, San Pedro y Canindeyú. La problemática de la expulsión se basa principalmente en los conflictos internos y la escasez de alimentos en las comunidades, por lo cual las familias salen de sus comunidades. Lo anterior tiene sus causas en la destrucción ambiental de los antiguos territorios de los Mbya: privatización de las tierras, deforestación masiva, expansión de la agricultura intensiva en capital, contaminación de los recursos naturales, abandono y falta de protección del Estado.

Las causas de la expulsión varían según las zonas: Las familias cuyas comunidades de origen es el departamento de Guairá, proceden de las zonas mineras de donde son expulsadas por la apropiación de las tierras donde se establecen las minas. Las que provienen del departamento de Caazapá migran generalmente por problemas de liderazgos provocados por el alquiler de tierras con el avance de la agricultura mecanizada y la venta ilegal de maderas. Los casos de los departamentos de Caaguazú, San Pedro y Canindeyú tienen casi todos los mismos problemas provocados por la deforestación, el avance de la agricultura mecanizada del cultivo de la soja, las fumigaciones y contaminación de las aguas, desaparición de sus fuentes de alimentación, dificultad para el cultivo agrícola de autoconsumo y conflictos internos producidos por el alquiler de sus tierras y la venta de maderas. También se observa que varias comunidades, especialmente del departamento de Caaguazú, se han ido quedando con las peores tierras lo cual dificulta el cultivo y las posibilidades de supervivencia.

El abandono del Estado de las comunidades indígenas y en general del sector indígena es una de las causas principales de la exclusión y discriminación sufrida por esta población. Históricamente el Estado estuvo ausente o fue cómplice de la destrucción y enajenación de los territorios tradicionales indígenas a quienes se los consideraban unos “intrusos”.

En el departamento de Caaguazú hay 61 comunidades y 3 aldeas, mayoritariamente localizadas en zonas rurales. Algunas comunidades están instaladas en la zona urbana de la capital del departamento, Cnel. Oviedo, y aledañas a la Ciudad de Caaguazú. Casi la totalidad de estas comunidades pertenecen a las etnias Mbyá Guaraní. Muchas de estas comunidades se encuentran organizadas en 5 Asociaciones Mbya. El grado de organización es aún incipiente presentando diversos niveles de consolidación. Desde el año 2011 estas han iniciado conversaciones dentro de la COORDINADORA DE ORGANIZACIONES INDÍGENAS DEL PUEBLO MBYÁ.



Una situación preocupante, citada por líderes Mbya, es que la oferta laboral para los más jóvenes2 suele reducirse a actividades que, a corto o largo plazo, pueden afectar la salud de los trabajadores (por ejemplo, ser utilizados como “banderolas humanas” para delimitar el espacio de fumigación de un cultivo o la recolección a mano -sin protección- de malezas que los herbicidas no eliminan. También se conoce que existe un grupo de adolescentes, sobre todo varones, que son contratados por menonitas para realizar trabajos de fumigación en sus establecimientos de animales y campos de cultivo. Este trabajo remunerado es altamente peligroso, primeramente porque los herbicidas utilizados son sumamente tóxicos y los/as adolescentes realizan la fumigación sin ningún equipo de protección así como tampoco se tiene en cuenta la edad y los requerimientos legales necesarios para contratar a adolescentes.
Metodologia: La iniciativa se realiza en seis comunidades que son parte integrante de la Asociación Indígena Mbya Ñoguero´i Pave´i y una comunidad asociada que no es parte de la Asociación. El abordaje en cada una de ellas es similar pero con algunas características distintivas. La iniciativa se desarrolla en un abordaje desde la comunidad hacia la calle, a través del esfuerzo enfocado en el fortalecimiento de la comunidad, teniendo el fortalecimiento de la organización indígena como un aspecto fundamental. Se realizó al inicio en cada comunidad un “diagnostico social, espiritual, de salud y educación” para entender la problemática. En el processo participativo, se hizo reuniónes comunitárias en cada comunidad a cada 8 o 15 días, reuniónes mensuales para toma de decisiones y de planificacion, reuniónes bimensuales con delegados de comunidades donde se realiza el seguimiento y la evaluación del proceso. El sujeto de la iniciativa es la familia reinsertada, y en algunos casos cuando se encuentra un niño o niña que no tiene familia se le busca una que pueda adoptarle. En un primer momento queda en la casa del cacique. Si no encuentra otra familia, el cacique debe adoptarlo.
Todos los componentes lo lleva adelante la AIÑP, con el apoyo de OGUASU. Estos son:

  • Trabajo en la Comunidad: En el trabajo en las comunidades se ha hecho una consulta previa y cuatro “diagnósticos” para comprender la situación de los NNA y familias migrantes y de la comunidad, procurando definir las causas de la salida de la comunidad, a partir de una visión integral. Los trabajos se realizaron considerando los siguientes actores comunitarios: líder político (cacique), el líder religioso, los promotores de salud, y los docentes

  • Contacto en Calle: Se realizó una revisión en calle de las familias que salieron de la comunidad donde se releva la situación de las familias que se encontraban en calle.Se evalúa con ellos y con la comunidad los motivos por los cuales abandonó la comunidad: conflicto de liderazgo, conflictos económicos (alquiler de tierra, venta de madera, etc.), necesidades de alimentación. Cuando estos conflictos son muy graves y hubo violencia de por medio, muchas familias deciden reinsertarse en otra comunidad, no la de origen. Para ello es fundamental la sinergia y el trabajo conjunto con todas las comunidades, potenciales albergues de las familias reinsertadas.

  • Acompañamiento a los reinsertados en la Comunidad: La decisión de reinsertar a las familias a su comunidad debe ser tomada y asumida por todos los miembros de la comunidad. Debe ser un hecho colectivo y asumido como tal. Conlleva el siguiente proceso:

  1. Reuniones generales en la comunidad para prepararse sobre la decisión de reincorporar a las familias que están en calle. Estas reuniones son en todas las instancias.

  2. Previsión de la infraestructura de alojamiento para las familias que retornan:

      1. Familia donde albergar: en caso que no tengan familias

      2. Casa nueva si no tiene una: si la familia no tiene casa, se le construye una de manera comunitaria.

      3. Casa de antes: si la familia tuvo casa antes de mudarse, retorna en la misma.

  3. Trabajo de reincorporación, emprendido según los cuatro “diagnósticos” iniciales que se tiene de la/s familia/s y la comunidad, con la participación de los distintos actores




  • Trabajo preventivo en las comunidades: El trabajo preventivo se encara con la participación de la comunidade en:

  • Reuniones mensuales en las comunidades para la sensibilización de las familias sobre los riesgos de salir a la calle.

  • Capacitación en temas referentes a: Salud, Agropecuaria, Fortalecimiento de la organización comunitaria, Educación, Derechos

  • Capacitación técnica

  • Programación radial denominado Mbya Ayvu, dirigido por los propios indígenas en lengua Mbya.

  • Centro de Capacitación Indígena de Mbarigui, en um modelo de “Escuela Agrícola”.




  • Atención al trabajo peligroso adolescente, con reinserción de trabajadores de calle, mejoramiento de condiciones de trabajo peligroso a trabajo permitido, sensibilización con la organización Menonita, y asesoramiento legal para los trabajadores


Lecciones aprendidas:

  • El abordaje es desde la comunidad hacia la calle. Entendiendo la comunidad en la concepción Mbya del tekoha o territorio donde se realiza el teko; espacio “sociopolítico” donde se dan las condiciones de posibilidad del modo de ser de los Mbya Guaraní. Y la calle o espacio urbano, el lugar donde se pierde y se deteriora el teko, y adonde son arrastrados muchos niños, niñas, adolescentes y familias en este proceso de destrucción del pueblo Mbya.

  • El esfuerzo está enfocado en el fortalecimiento de la comunidad. La comunidad como un sistema sociopolítico donde hay una estructura política liderada por el tendota guasu o mburubicha (cacique) y una práctica cultural liderada por el karaia (Chaman o líder religioso) que enseñan cómo deben crecer los niños y niñas para la realización plena de modo de ser Mbya, en el campo del respeto, entendimiento, amor y salud. Se entiende que el sujeto no es el niño y la niña como individuo. El sujeto es colectivo: la familia y la comunidad. No se trata de derechos individuales sino de derechos colectivos. Las comunidades indígenas Mbya se organizan de esta manera. Cuando un integrante de una familia sufre, toda la comunidad sufre. Los problemas son tomados como temas de la comunidad, se buscan salidas colectivas, en comunidad.

  • El fortalecimiento de la organización indígena es un aspecto fundamental. Para la defensa de su autonomía y derechos consuetudinarios los Mbya han tenido que organizarse y adoptar estructuras organizativas de los blancos, de modo a ser reconocidos como sujetos en la lucha por sus derechos. El otro eje de este modelo de abordaje es el fortalecimiento de la organización representativa de los Mbya ante la estructura pública de los blancos, en este caso la Asociación Ñoguero´i Pave´i, que ejecuta el PA con el acompañamiento de la OGUASU.


Desafios: Diseñar la acción dentro del marco de los Convenios 169, 138 y 182 de la OIT; que toda la acción sea diseñada, y llevada adelante a partir de lo que los líderes indígenas vayan indicando; dejar la cultura Occidental de enfrentamiento del trabajo infantil, y confiar en que la solución a llos problemas indígenas deben venir de los propios indígenas, respetando su marco cultural.
Proximos pasos: La sostenibilidad del modelo está en que todo el proceso desde el comienzo, durante y al final del mismo se realizó desde la perspectiva indígena Mbya, y contando con los recursos de la Comunidad indígena Mbya, y los proyectos productivos que las diferentes comunidades van teniendo.



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