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SEGUNDO PRODUTO

Compêndio de práticas selecionadas e sistematizadas
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Termo de Referência Original:

Acompanhamento dos debates da plataforma virtual preparatória à III Conferência Global sobre Trabalho Infantil (CGTI) e incorporação dos subsídios ao Documento Base da Conferência



Termo de Referência Adendo:

Contratação de serviços profissionais para acompanhamento das propostas de Boas Práticas coletadas, sistematização e seleção dos modelos replicáveis, para apresentação na III Conferência Global sobre Trabalho Infantil (CGTI)


Brasília, Out 2013

Consultora: Ofelia Ferreira da Silva


1) A Core Work Skill Activity through Prevocational program in order to Prevent Child Labour


Period of implementation: Since 2006

Where: Indonesia

Main focus: Education to address child labour in agriculture and domestic work

Lead organization: Ministry of National Education, Education office of Sukabumi District email: ilo.sukabumi@gmail.com Website: https://www.facebook.com/IloSukabumi Website: http://dikdas.kemdiknas.go.id/

Results: 965 children participated in the pre-vocational skills program; 106 out of school children received a bridging course program; 30 of these children were referred back to schools in the 2012 academic year.

Context and objective:

The objective of the governmental program on Education and Training is to contribute to the progressive elimination of child labour by increasing the quality, the relevance and the access of formal education programmes. It was developed after the Tsunami disaster in Aceh, by the Ministry of National Education in Indonesia, as a specific policy on Life-Skill-Oriented Education Programs in junior secondary schools. It was then expanded to Sukabumi, Lampung and Jember and, up to now, the prevocational program continued in Sukabumi district (West Java, Indonesia), with focus in one-roof schools of very remote areas.
It is a partnership engaging the Education office of Sukabumi, the Legislative Agency of Sukabumi, the Planning Agency of Sukabumi, the Manpower office of Sukabumi, the Teachers Union of Sukabumi, the NGO Yayasan Edukasia, the USAID funded program Master trainer from Basic Education and the Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
Pre-vocational training refers to training relating to a narrow range of occupational tasks, which gives children an introduction to non-academic work related activity. Prevocational training can help to increase the relevance and interest of older children in the curriculum. It reduces dropping out and it supports effective school to work transition. Children aged 13 – 15 years old have attended the program, most of them being prevented from the agriculture work, child domestic labour and human trafficking.

Methodology:

The prevocational program is an extracurricular activity that has two elements: personal and social skills learning activities, and pre-vocational skills learning activities. It assists students in building positive character such as confidence, positive image as well as working in a team and communication skill through vocational activities such as handicraft and others. The overall goal is to encourage students to stay in school as well as to help to prepare them for eventual vocational training and employment choices in later years. The activities cover a total of 40 hours in one semester, with 25 to 30 students selected from grade 7 and 8 attending each life skills learning classes at each school. The schools conducted an orientation on the prevocational activity to both students and parents, which include the following explanations on the type of pre-vocational skills to be provided, agreements on time and place for activities, the benefits and the process of the activity, and the introduction to the program tutors.
The general content of the program encompasses:
- Core life/work skills as a set of general competencies considered to be essential for success in life and work, which mainly consists of personal and social skills, such as self awareness, rational thinking, communication and team work. They help students cope with uncertainty and rapid change and reinforce the need for lifelong learning.
- Pre-vocational skills provide an extra-curricular learning experience to give students a “taste” of production and sales skills, as a way of introducing them to vocational choices. It means providing them with an experience in making and selling a simple product.
The schools have to develop and submit their pre-vocational activity proposals to receive funding for the purchase of relevant equipment and materials. Once a school’s proposal is approved, the Education office of Sukabumi purchases the needed equipment and materials, and disbursed funds for other expenses such as an external vocational instructor and the transportation for the tutors. The process requires the training of teachers, inspectors, and parents committee representatives. It was also developed a kit of teaching resources: a guideline for the implementation of pre-vocational activities, a guideline for training of trainers on pre-vocational activities and a mini module of personal and social skills. The Education Office of Sukabumi received technical support from the Provincial Master Trainers. Also, monthly meeting with the teachers/tutors takes place to discuss progress and problems in implementing the programme.

- Challenges:

The locations of one-roof schools in Indonesia generally are in very remote areas, thus not easy to access and very expensive. Therefore, local budget transportation should be enough to cover the expert/technical team to monitor the program regularly.

The availability of quality teachers as most one-roof schools few permanent teachers without teaching qualification and background. Teacher training, mentoring and supervision to the schools are important.

The impact assessment conducted by the Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia with 800 students showed that, despite the general positive results, it may require a longer period of skills development training for significant changes in personal skills.
- Lessons learned:

It required at least three years to identify the framework that best suits on preventing school drop-out due to child labor. As Indonesia is very large and diverse, it is important to assess the local situation including the child labor situation and education needs to make the program useful.

The engagement of the Education office and other local institutions both in National and local level, at the very beginning of the program are important. It will strengthen their commitment to continue the program in the future.

The program is beneficial for the students who have limitations in continuing studying due to the financial affordability. The embedded core skills along with work skills is expected to add value to the students so they are able to access better working condition when they graduated from junior high schools.

The involvement of the expert team such as University, master trainers and vocational skill experts are important as both Ministry of Education and Education office have no technical experts and experiences. The team may strengthen the capacities of the teachers in remote areas.
Next Steps:

Based on the experience, there is an interest of the Education Office to continue this program under their own local budget and further discussions are taking place on this. The Ministry of Education and Culture is continuing to expand the access of basic education through building one-roof schools in remote areas. 300 new one-roof schools were identified to implement a pre-vocational skills program in 2013. The experience and models used in Sukabumi are being shared with the Ministry to feed the wider roll out of prevocational training.



2) Prevention, Withdrawal and Rehabilitation of child labour in tourism services and other hazardous sectors


Period of implementation: May 2011 to Sep 2013

Where: Vietnam

Main focus: Social protection, education, legislation and inspection against child labour in markets and streets in touristic areas

Lead organization: Lao Cai Provincial Department of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs

Results: 600 boys and girls (at least 50% are girls) under 18 were provided with necessary and appropriate social protection services, protection/withdrawn from hazardous work, and equipped with general education and vocational training, and/or with other appropriate alternative supports to the children and/or their families; 200 children were provided accommodation and food at the school through community-based classes with drop-out rate reduced significantly; 80% of trained students have found suitable jobs; 300 poor families with access to credit schemes and training for managing loans, and linked to companies to market their products; at least 80% local tourism related services were trained on the national legislation on child labour; 250 officials/staff working in the local government agencies and other partners were trained;

Context and objective:

The initiative is a government program of Lao Cai Provincial Department of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs, on Social Protection, Education and Training, Legislation and Enforcement with the objective to contribute to the prevention and progressive elimination of child labour in Viet Nam among children and adolescents engaged in tourism related activities and other identified hazardous sectors. It has started on May 2011 and ended on September 2013, covering the Sapa district, a highly well developed touristic region. There, the increased number of tourists have brought economic benefits with new jobs and businesses but with impacts in the multi-ethnic population, such as child labour resulting in school drop-out. The initiative gather as partners the Lao Cai Provincial People’s Committee (PPC), the Department of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (DOLISA) of the Lao Cai province, the State management agency for local education and training, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, the Hoa Sua Tourism Vocational Training school, the NGO Vietnam Rural Industries Research and Development Institute (ViRi), the State agencies that manage information, the District and commune People’s Committees, the Vocational Training Unit, the Industry and Trade sector, the Women’s Union, the Bank for Policy and Social Affairs, the Trade Union, the Agriculture and Rural Development sector, and Farmer Associations.
According to a Beneficiary Baseline Survey conducted by the Institute of Labour Science and Social Affairs (ILSSA), there are 538 children working as street vendors, attendants in restaurant, hotel, karaoke, tourists luggage porters, tourist guiders, and in other work to help their families such as carrying firewood, rattan making, livestock, cropping. The majority of children surveyed are in the age group of 5-14, often following a sibling or a parent, who are underemployed or not economically active. 67.66% either never went to school or dropped out. For the peak season of production, the average hours of work of children is 7.43 hours per day.
Methodology:

The conceptual framework of the programme encompasses the relevance of the social, economic, political and cultural characteristics and context of the tourism areas; the multidimension engagement of people committees, labour sectors, education and training sector, cultural and tourism sector, women unions, mass media, NGOs and others in all project activities, from baseline survey on child labour, development of the action programme, project impementation, and supervising and monitoring the project activities; the mainstreaming of child labour issues in the local socio-economic development agenda, poverty reduction, education, culture, agriculture in order to mobilize resources for the project.



It was developed through the following stages:

  1. Training courses on child labour and design, monitoring and evaluation of child labour program were conducted to local organizations. The participants understood better the concepts of child labour, its causes and consequences, the international and national legislation, the worst forms, how to combat it, a project cycle, and how to develop an action program using log-frame.




  1. A beneficiary baseline survey of child labour was conducted and presented with participation of local staff, to gather feedback and inputs for the formulation of action program and for awareness raising policy formulation purposes.




  1. A participatory workshop was run to formulate the action program with local authorities, representatives from areas of labour, education, health, tourism, commercial and industrial, NGOs, banks, mass media etc. The participants identified the status and causes of child labour in their locality, the target groups, how to support them, who would provide it, and the management and monitoring mechanism.




  1. The draft of action program was then presented in a local meeting to gather more inputs from different stakeholders, as well as their commitment in joining the execution of it.




  1. A workshop was conducted with the participation of all the implementing agencies to draw specific activities, timeframe for each one, budget, target beneficiaries etc.




  1. Staff of implementing agencies and communal collaborators was trained on profiling the target children and to use the project direct beneficiary monitoring and reporting system. The system utilizes a web-based application to profile and update data and developed changes progress of project target child beneficiaries and their families, as well as all related activities conducted in the project sites under the action program.




  1. The information of profiled working children and their family was inserted into the direct beneficiary monitoring and reporting system according to their working status, schooling and their needs of assistances.




  1. Consultations were made with profiled children and their parents, to find out what and how to support them with education and/or vocational training and with improvements in household economy. Local authorities, other implementing agencies, service providers on vocational institution, local employers, banker, agricultural extension, women’s union and farmer association also participated in the meetings to commit in providing the required support. Separate meetings as a follow-up to the consultations were conducted with the key local service providers.




  1. Separate agreement was made with each service provider in accordance to the agreed work-plan, including its activities, target group, number of beneficiaries, budget and the monitoring plan.

- Lessons learned: the program was developed and implemented in a way to promote strong ownership and leadership of the government in child labour prevention and protection via institutional settings and establishing of a network of collaborating institutions; responses to the actual local needs was provided to ensure that the stakeholders contributed with resources to the initiatives; mainstreaming the initiatives into the local current exist activities and priorities rather than creating new things.


Challenges: the programme of bilingual teaching experienced challenges in institutional settings and staff capacity, such as the lack of training materials in different languages; high level of poverty among the ethnic minority peoples; early marriage as a cultural custom specialy among adolescent, mostly arranged by parents against the will of girls and boys
Next Steps: The initiatives were integrated into the government policies, priorities and initiatives, such as education, poverty reduction and vocational training. It was built on the leadership role of local government and with strong collaboration of other institutions, expressed in contributions and resources provided by those stakeholders. Besides, the model incorporated initiatives to include ethnic minorities and to address family livelihoods challenges.

3) Mis derechos son importantes - NUYATALIL (idioma K’iché) WOKLENA (idioma Mam)


Periodo de implementación: Enero de 2010 a marzo 2013

Donde: Guatemala

Area de concentración: Education to address child labour in indigenous communities

Organización lider: Catholic Relief Services (CRS) Web: www.crsespanol.org

Web: www.nuyatalilwoklena.org



Resultados: El retiro de más de 6,300 niños y niñas del trabajo; la prevención del involucramiento de más de 3,000 niños y niñas con el trabajo; la capacitación de más de 500 maestros y maestras de 180 escuelas; el conocimiento transmitido a supervisores educativos de seis departamentos de Guatemala, y a autoridades educativas a nivel central; las 180 personas que tomaron parte en el diplomado de Derechos de la Niñez y Trabajo Infantil de seis meses de duración, con reconocimiento académico de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala;


Contexto y objetivos:

La Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida (ENCOVI) de 2006 identifico, en Guatemala, 966,000 niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores. Totonicapan y San Marcos son departamentos con mayor población maya, índices altos de pobreza extrema, desnutrición, marginación de servicios, mayor deserción escolar, repitencia y sobre edad en las escuelas. Además tienen el mayor número de niños trabajadores. El primer idioma de las familias no es castellano y muchas migran buscando trabajo a otras zonas del país o a los Estados Unidos. Este movimiento migratorio causa rompimiento familiar, familias mono parentales a cargo de la madre únicamente, ausencia o deserción de la escuela, movimiento económico dentro del sector informal, lo que conlleva a que los niños se incorporen a ayudar en la generación de ingresos monetarios para la subsistencia familiar. Muchos niños y niñas se ausentan de las escuelas porque los contenidos que reciben no les dan herramientas para vivir, no son en su idioma materno, o no responden a sus necesidades inmediatas. Por otra parte, la educación escolarizada en castellano también desvaloriza y desacredita las enseñanzas tradicionales de la cultura maya, generando discriminación y promoviendo baja auto estima en niños, niñas y adolescentes. El proyecto busca construir zonas libres de trabajo infantil explotador, capacitando y comprometiendo los actores locales en la aplicación de los derechos de la niñez y por la adopción de acciones correctivas concretas.


Metodología:

Primero se trabajó con la comunidad educativa de escuelas publicas y a continuación se trabajó con las madres y los padres, en los idiomas locales (K’iche y Mam) y con formas apropiadas para tratar los temas. A continuación los 120 facilitadores visitaron en sus hogares a la mayor de las familias, buscando aplicar lo tratado en la forma de educar, tratar y corregir a sus hijos e hijas. El siguiente abordaje se realizó con autoridades de Gobierno, a nivel central y local, para coordinar acciones conjuntas en planes, programas y políticas para atender niñez trabajadora. Finalmente se ha tratado con agentes de comunicación social de radios y televisión locales, con autoridades e instituciones organizadas y dirigidas por población maya, como radios comunitarias, el Consejo Nacional de Educación Maya CNEM, Fundación Rigoberta Menchu, Extensión de la Universidad Estatal y otros grupos para construir alianzas y establecer procesos de apropiación local.

Se dio atención educativa con la metodologías 1. Escuela Rural Activa, 2. Educación Maya Bilingüe Intercultural, 3. Primaria Acelerada para Población en Sobre Edad. 4. Espacios para Crecer y 5. Formación Técnica Vocacional. Todas estas metodologías son apoyadas con la formación de Niños y Niñas Tutores, Gobiernos Escolares y padres y madres de familia organizados en Sistemas de Alerta Temprana. Esta acción educativa busca hacer útil y atractivo el aprendizaje en la escuela, para que los niños trabajadores no se retiren.

Todas las acciones educativas se acompañaron con una campana de radio y television, con mensajes en idiomas K’iche y Mam, afiches y posters en las escuelas, tiendas, clínicas, y lugares públicos, pintura de murales, y caminatas, desfiles y carrozas en los días de feria municipal.

Se estableció una Unidad de Monitoreo que lleva el registro de los 16,000 niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores inscritos, con sus documentación completa –partidas de nacimiento, inscripción en las escuelas, autorización de madres y padres para participar en el proyecto, registros académicos, tipo de actividad laboral del niño o niña y número de horas que dedica a ello-, así como las visitas domiciliares recibidas, los acuerdos establecidos con los encargados del niño, y acciones recomendadas de seguimiento.


- Lecciones aprendidas:

Hay la necesidad de involucrar a todos los actores del hecho educativo para que: 1. Los maestros y maestras en las escuelas atiendan debidamente a los niños y niñas trabajadores; 2. Las madres y padres de familia se interesen por el rendimiento escolar de sus hijos e hijas, y por su bienestar presente y futuro, sin pensar únicamente en el corto plazo; 3. comprometer a los niños y niñas en las escuelas para que se conviertan en vigilantes, defendiendo sus derechos; 4. los contenidos educativos tomen en cuenta las necesidades e intereses de los padres, respetando su cosmovisión y no desvalorizando sus creencias.


- Desafíos:

. La aceptación del mismo a nivel de las escuelas y las comunidades donde se trabajo.

. La dificuldad de las familias de retirar a sus hijos de tareas identificadas como trabajo infantil.

. Las huelgas magisteriales que suspendieron clases, conflictos sociales locales contra el Gobierno Central, y fenómenos climáticos como la Tormenta Agatha en mayo de 2010.

. Las acciones represivas por parte de la autoridad central, a demandas y reclamos antiguos: las tarifas de energía eléctrica, la autorización de hidroeléctricas y extracción de minerales, destrucción de cultivos vinculados a drogas sin alternativas de producción agrícola.
Proximos pasos:

El proyecto Mis Derechos son Importantes se ha mostrado y demostrado que la enseñanza de los derechos de la niñez constituye una columna fundamental en el retiro y prevención del trabajo infantil. Formar nuevas generaciones, empoderándolas en el conocimiento y la defensa de sus derechos, es una forma de garantizar que estas personas no se dejaran utilizar ni manipular para beneficio de otros. También es una forma de construir la sociedad del siglo XXI que busca eliminar la pobreza y abrir espacio para una sociedad sin discriminación ni marginación.


Los cinco grupos diferentes de actores (grupos organizados de maestros y maestras, padres y madres, niñas y niños, empleadores, líderes locales), involucrados y comprometidos en la defensa de los derechos de la niñez, son los principales protagonistas de una acción coordinada, conjunta y sostenible. Tratar los temas con los padres y las madres, preparándoles para conocer los riesgos de cada trabajo y de los derechos que se violentan, es una forma de prevenir y evitar que estos niños sean expulsados fuera de sus hogares. Se logran decisiones de cambios de vida y de conducta que redundan en mayor compromiso de los adultos hacia sus hijos, evitándoles salir fuera de sus hogares para trabajar.

4) Aprender a Pensar sobre el Trabajo Infantil (APTI) - Interviniendo sobre la familia como elemento clave para combatirlo




Periodo de implementación: 2010-2013

Donde: Perú

Area de concentración: Educación y conscienciación de padres, madres y maestros acerca del trabajo infantil

Organización lider: Fundación Telefónica del Perú

website: http://www.fundacion.telefonica.com.pe/pronino/



Resultados: 1255 beneficiarios directos, padres y madres de niños trabajadores, de familias que viven en pobreza y pobreza extrema de áreas urbano marginales y rurales del Perú, los cuales han sido niños trabajadores en su infancia y adolescencia y tienen bajo nivel educativo, 90% de estos son madres, hablantes del castellano, quechua o el aymara; hasta el 59% de niños dejaron de trabajar; la cantidad de niños que trabajaban de lunes a viernes bajó del 49% al 22% de los casos; los padres que lograron reconocer los peligros asociados al trabajo infantil de sus hijos subió hasta al 100%; el porcentaje de padres que consideraba que le daba un buen trato a sus hijos se incrementó hasta el 63%;


Contexto y objetivos:

De acuerdo a la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO) del  2011, en el Perú alrededor de 1,65 millones (23,4%)  de chicos entre los 6 y  17 años, trabajan. Las estadísticas muestran que, aproximadamente, uno de cada cinco niños (18,4%) entre los 6 y 13 años,  así como uno de cada tres adolescentes (32%) entre los 14 y 17 años,  trabajan, siendo en el Perú la edad mínima para trabajar los 14 años. La mayoría de niños trabajadores (58,7%) pertenecen a familias rurales y realizan labores agropecuarias. El 41,3% que vive en las ciudades, trabaja en negocios familiares, en las calles, en  trabajo doméstico, reciclaje o construcción, existiendo una gran cantidad de trabajadores familiares no remunerados. Si bien, la mayoría de niños que trabajan asisten a la escuela simultáneamente (95% en la educación primaria), los que se dedican exclusivamente a trabajar no son pocos (6,1%), viven en áreas rurales, son adolescentes y mujeres.


Estudios realizados en el Perú evidenciaron que existen percepciones y actitudes idiosincráticas de los padres de familia que motivan el trabajo infantil. Estas provendrían en gran medida de la propia experiencia de trabajo infantil de los padres en su niñez y moldearían las decisiones que éstos toman al respecto. Las imperiosas demandas de la pobreza, entre otros factores, generan dificultad para pensar en las circunstancias familiares, en la perspectiva de futuro; en las necesidades específicas de los niños, o en sus derechos, pensando que el trabajo infantil es un “mal necesario”, o “algo natural a la propia cultura”.
Las evidencias observadas demostraron que los padres y madres de familia que tienen la oportunidad de usar sus capacidades reflexivas para tomar decisiones sobre el trabajo infantil, buscan evitar esta actividad en sus hijos, son conscientes de sus riesgos, buscan generar condiciones de protección para los menores, auspician y apoyan el desarrollo escolar de los mismos, no otorgan tareas peligrosas o que supongan mucho esfuerzo y regulan sus actividades con horarios que no perjudiquen los estudios.
Luego se ha planteado el APTI con el objetivo de desarrollar pensamiento reflexivo sobre el trabajo infantil en los padres y madres de familia de niños que trabajan o en riesgo de hacerlo, e influir en sus procesos de toma de decisiones al respecto, teniendo como base el interés superior del niño. La iniciativa se desarolla en el marco del programa Proniño de la Fundación Telefónica, en asocio con el Centro de Estudios Sociales y Publicaciones (CESIP) – Lima, Instituto de Desarrollo Local (IDEL) - Huancayo, la Red Titikaka – Puno, y la Asociación de Publicaciones Educativas.

Metodología:

APTI es un modelo de trabajo grupal con un enfoque de desarrollo de capacidades, a través de la promoción del pensamiento reflexivo de padres y madres de familia que viven en situación de pobreza. Se desarrolla como un programa de siete sesiones con los Grupos de Aprendizaje Reflexivo (GAR), integrados cada uno por 10-12 padres de familia y conducido por un psicólogo. Teniendo como principios el respeto, la confidencialidad y la escucha sensible, en el grupo se desarrollan aprendizajes que parten del relato de la propia experiencia vivencial de los participantes. Se busca que los mismos participantes identifiquen alternativas y descubran los condicionantes del trabajo infantil desde su propia experiencia y escuchando la de los otros participantes. Los padres hacen el examen de su rol actual como padres o madres de familia, contrastando ambos periodos (su pasado como hijos y su presente como padres), y desarrollar un “darse cuenta” de las necesidades específicas de sus hijos. Posteriormente, los padres dialogan sobre los riesgos a los que se expusieron ellos como niños trabajadores y a los que, en la actualidad, están expuestos sus hijos.

Se discute luego acerca de la valoración de la educación como mecanismo de superación de la pobreza, y sobre las necesidades infantiles que van más allá de la sobrevivencia material, como es el afecto, la recreación y el ser mirado como sujeto.
- Leciones aprendidas:

. La importancia de la dimensión familiar en el abordaje del problema del trabajo infantil hace necesario el desarrollo de métodos validados y efectivos que respondan a esto.

. Debe existir una institución ejecutora comprometida con el combate al trabajo infantil, abierta a comprender que ésta problemática no puede ser enfrentada si no se trabaja con la subjetividad de los actores involucrados (padres, docentes y niños trabajadores).

. Para ajustarse a la subjetividad de las personas y su contexto, el psicólogo-facilitador debe pertenecer al entorno cultural de los participantes, debe recibir una capitación inicial, así como requiere un acompañamiento para afianzar las técnicas aplicadas.

. Se pueden hacer adaptaciones a los entornos culturales diversos, ya que la metodología es flexible.
- Desafíos:

. El pequeño alcance de cobertura que tiene cada grupo GAR (10 a 12 participantes), para lo que se ha generado un nuevo formato para atender a más de 30 padres por sesión, con un manual y tres videos que recrean los diálogos de los padres de familia, a fin de generar grupos de discusión sobre los temas planteados con un número grande de padres de familia.


Próximos pasos: El desarrollo de la capacidad de pensar reflexivamente sobre el trabajo infantil tiene el potencial de producir cambios actitudinales y conductuales que brindan sostenibilidad a la intervención en el tiempo. Los padres de familia ven de otra manera su vida familiar y buscan un mejoramiento de las condiciones de vida, asumiendo de manera autónoma su protagonismo en el diseño y conformación de un plan familiar que considera las necesidades de los niños. Se ha observado que cuando APTI es aplicada en conjunto con otra intervención, por ejemplo de Emprendimientos Productivos para familias (CESIP), el impacto es mayor y la sostenibilidad de los cambios son aún más duraderos.

5) Plano Regional para a Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil – MERCOSUL




Período de implementação: Desde 1991

Onde: Brasil, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay

Enfoque principal: National legislation and international agreements on inspection and public awareness

Organização líder: Ministérios do Trabalho dos países do MERCOSUL

Resultados: Revisão e atualização da publicação sobre legislação comparada, de 2007; quatro estudos sobre trabalho infantil na agricultura e trabalho infantil doméstico em zonas de fronteira foram realizados; ações conjuntas de sensibilização e conscientização foram realizadas, lançadas no mesmo horário do mesmo dia, por todos os ministros do trabalho, a fim de alcançar maior atenção das populações nas zonas de frontera; a 2ª Declaração Presidencial sobre Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil foi divulgada, reforçando os compromissos assumidos no Roadmap pelos países do bloco; ações conjuntas de inspeção têm sido programadas regularmente nas áreas fronteiriças com cada país sendo responsável pelas irregularidades encontradas em seus espaços; o Segundo Plano Regional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil foi elaborado; elaboração de recomendações regionais específicas como trabalho infantil no esporte, trabalho infantil artístico e trabalho infantil doméstico;


Contexto e objetivos:

No marco de criação e avanço dos acordos econômicos do MERCOSUL, um conjunto de situações comuns passou a ser incluído nas negociações, entre elas a dimensão socio-laboral do MERCOSUL, que começou a ser abordada com a Declaração de Montevidéu, em 9 de maio de 1991, assinada pelos ministros de trabalho dos quatro países. Foi então estabelecido o Subgrupo 10 sobre Assuntos Laborais, Emprego e Seguridade Social. Neste grupo se desenvolvem os debates, propostas e acordos relacionados aos temas de emprego, migração, qualificação, formação profissional, saúde, inspeção do trabalho, seguridade social e trabalho infantil. A partir daí, a matéria do trabalho infantil ganha relevancia técnica e política, desencadeando ações conjuntas, progredindo da ratificação das Convenções da OIT ao planejamento em conjunto, campanhas publicitárias, harmonização da legislação entre outras ações.


Assim, as iniciativas têm por objetivo contribuir para a implementação da política regional para prevenção e erradicação do trabalho infantil no bloco dos países do MERCOSUL. Com o Plano Regional para Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil no MERCOSUL, se pretende contribuir para acelerar o ritmo de cumprimento das metas de eliminação do trabalho infantil na região previstas para 2016 e 2020, mais especificamente harmonizando a declaração sócio-laboral do MERCOSUL no tema do trabalho infantil, em consonancia com as normas internacionais assumidas pelos Estados Partes, atualizando o conhecimento sobre a dimensão, alcance e diversidade da problemática do trabalho infantil na região, e elaborando e executando mecanismos de cooperação entre os países do MERCOSUL no tema da prevenção e eliminação do trabalho infantil. Em sua implementação, os governos dos quatro países do bloco (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay e Uruguay) têm levado em consideração a realidade das zonas de fronteira, seja na questão da sensibilização e conscientização, como em políticas públicas de cunho social e/ou de repressão.
Metodologia:

Desde a sua formação, o MERCOSUL contou com a vontade dos países de fortalecer os vínculos como caminho para desenvolver-se em um nível interno, e, dessa maneira, enfrentar os crescentes desafios que a globalização apresentava em um nível mundial.


Durante a década de 90, os países do Mercosul assinaram Memorandos de Entendimento com a OIT sobre o tema do trabalho infantil que, somando-se aos debates em reuniões técnicas entre os órgãos laborais, culminaram com a assinatura em 2002, em Buenos Aires, da 1ª Declaração Presidencial sobre Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil, que listava uma série de políticas nas quais os Estados Partes deveriam eliminar o trabalho infantil.
A eficácia desta política regional se viu refletida no desenho dos Planos Nacionais em cada um dos quatro países (Argentina 2006, Brasil 2004, Paraguai 2003 e Uruguai 2003) que fizeram avançar as políticas de erradicação do trabalho infantil, com a publicação de estatísticas, ações de fiscalização, programas de transferência de renda entre outras. Em uma nova etapa, foram identificadas ações conjuntas para os países do bloco. E em março de 2004, foi lançada a campanha comunicativa “Trabalhar é coisa de adulto”, ainda hoje ativa nas cidades fronteiriças dos quatro países.
Após isso, a partir da preocupação com a inspeção do trabalho nas zonas de fronteira, onde as crianças cresciam em ambientes comuns mas com realidades e legislações diferentes, foi elaborado em conjunto o Guia para a implementação de um sistema de inspeção e monitoramento do trabalho infantil nos países do MERCOSUL e Chile. As estatísticas também passaram a desempenhar grande importância no balizamento das ações, e, em 2007, todo o bloco já dispunha de dados mais detalhados sobre o trabalho infantil. E em 2006, foi elaborado o Plano Regional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil, que identificou problemas e ações necessárias frente à sociedade e nos próprios governos. Com o resultado da II Conferência Global sobre o Trabalho Infantil - o Roadmap, o Plano Regional ganhou prazos e metas específicas.
- Lições aprendidas:

A elaboração de um plano regional foi fundamental para dar mais efetividade às relações conjuntas, levando à instalação de uma Unidade Executora, com uma secretaria executiva tripartite com autonomia na execução das políticas propostas.

A realização de encontros presenciais semestralmente em conjunto com as reuniões do subgrupo de trabalho de relações de trabalho, emprego e segurança social foi primordial, principalmente no início da aplicação do primeiro plano. E as ações em conjunto, bem como lançamento de campanhas publicitárias nas cidades fronteiriças, também tiveram um importante papel.
- Desafios:

. O maior obstáculo no modelo dessa experiência é a comunicação entre os países membros. Para enfrenta-lo, os pontos focais governamentais passaram a se reunir através de videoconferências quinzenalmente, resultando em grandes avanços na execução do primeiro e na elaboração do segundo plano.


Próximos passos:

A prática e a continuidade de sua existencia demonstram que é possível alcançar resultados em áreas onde existam mais de dois Estados Partes envolvidos, onde se fale idiomas diferentes e existam marcos legais diferentes para a idade mínima de ingresso no mundo do trabalho.

6) Child Domestic Labor


Period of implementation: Since 2005

Where: Morroco

Main focus: Social protection on child domestic labour

Lead organization: INSAF (Institute Nationale de Solidarité avec les Femmes en Détresse)

website: http://fr.insaf.ma/




Results: More than 300 girls have been removed from domestic work and reintegrated into family and school; four of them are attending university; in 19 municipalities, families no longer “rent” their daughters;


Context and objective:

In Morocco, tens of thousands of girls called "little maids" under 15 years are exploited in domestic work. They are especially from rural and peri-urban areas of the country. 38% are aged 8 to 12 years. 49% are school dropouts and 30% have never been to school. The main causes are poverty, illiteracy and ignorance of parents, low status of women, lack or distance to school, legislative failure and a strong urban demand, especially from wealthy and well educated families. The “little maids” are deprived of parental affection, way far from education and training centers and are subject to exploitation, abuse and even homicide. The existing Labour Code are not sufficient to meet the specific characteristics of child domestic labor. Labor inspectors, for example, cannot access private households to identify child domestic workers and the children are not aware of all the services that are offered by government agencies. Misleading intermediaries continue to attract children in domestic work with false promises.


INSAF contributes to the eradication of the work of "little maids" It provides direct support for their withdrawal from labour situations, their protection and their reintegration into family and school in rural areas. Along with local authorities, social services, the Regional Academy of Education and schools, local associations, parents, Ministry for Employment, Social Development Department and International Donors, INSAF advocates for laws and policies to protect children against domestic work.


Methodology:

The INSAF program is organized into the following structured and articulated steps:


1. Preliminary diagnosis of the targeted rural areas: quantitative and qualitative socio-economic data from the region, provinces and municipalities to identify areas of study on the field

2. Field surveys to consolidate data, identify and meet the actors (education, regional development associations, elected officials, etc.).

3. Meet parents' associations (school and / or village)

4. Development Action Plan: common targets, target actors, actions to perform, accurate human resources and logistics, timing of actions, budget

5. Field response: girls identification, agreement with parents, withdrawing from labor, reintegration into family and school, social support of the girl, tutoring and academic upgrading

6. Shares of local and regional awareness with children and local associations

7. Mobilization of local associations for sustainability
Monitoring and evaluation is carried out by the head of the division and the direction of the association. External evaluation is made by the sponsors of the Association. In areas where families "rent" their girls for domestic work, INSAF staff identifies girls who are of school age but not enrolled, determines those working as domestics, talks with families of about the risks. If parents are willing to bring the girl, INSAF signs an agreement with the family to provide a monthly allowance, as long as she continues her education.
- Lessons learned:

Redeployment program requires: precise local conditions related to the socio-economic and cultural areas, education facilities, and the existence of alternatives for parents and girls, establishment of structures at the site of intervention, the design of a multi-annual program (term education of girls), the mobilization of public and local associations and the program harmonization between the support providing and awareness.


- Challenges:

In a long run, the greatest challenge is the eradication of labor "maids". For medium and short term, the challenges are the redeployment program in rural areas/peri-urban, and the establishment of a special law for labor eradication of child maids to remove girls from work and to protect and repair their rights.


Next Steps:

INSAF signed several agreements with local associations for the sustainability of the initiative and created more than 34 associations for collective action. Besides a bill has passed in the Parliament including "little maids" rights protection. It also has mobilized donors and local actors to replicate the program in other regions of the country.



7) Ending child labor in artisanal gold mining


Period of implementation: April 2009 to April 2011

Where: Mali

Main focus: Social protection in children working in mining environment

Lead organization: Réseau d’appui et de conseils (RAC) email: rac_mali@yahoo.fr




Results: 1360 children who worked in mining or were at risk of working in mining were withdrawn and enrolled in school; school attendance improved significantly and the functioning and community acceptance of the school improved; 45 families started income-generating activities.


Context and objective:

Between 20,000 and 40,000 children work in Mali’s artisanal gold mining sector, many of them start working as young as six years old. They dig shafts and work underground, pull up, carry and crush the ore, and pan it for gold. Many children suffer serious pain in their heads, necks, arms, or backs, and risk long-term spinal injury from carrying heavy weights and from enduring repetitive motion. They have sustained injuries from falling rocks and sharp tools, and have fallen into shafts, which sometimes collapse. Child miners also mix gold with mercury and then burn the amalgam to separate out the gold. Mercury attacks the central nervous system and is particularly harmful to children.


Child laborers lives with and work alongside their parents who are artisanal miners themselves, and are paid little for the gold they mine. However, some children also live or work with relatives, acquaintances, or strangers, and are economically exploited by them. A significant proportion are migrants, coming from different parts of Mali or from Burkina Faso and Guinea. Some of them may be victims of trafficking. Young girls in artisanal mining areas are also sometimes victims of sexual exploitation and abuse.
School fees, lack of infrastructure, and poor quality of education deter many parents in mining areas from sending their children to school. Net enrollment remains low at 60.6 percent. The government of Mali outlawed hazardous child labor in artisanal mines and, in June 2011, adopted a National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor in Mali. The Malian NGO Réseau d’Appui et de Conseils (RAC) had implemented an initiative to reduce child labor in mining and to increase primary school attendance in several villages in Western Mali (Kéniéba).

Methodology:

With the support of ILO/IPEC and other donors, the NGO withdrawed over 1,300 children from work. In three villages in Kéniéba circle, RAC renovated old school buildings or built new ones, built nurseries and hired nursery staff, provided furniture and education material, hired nursery teachers, and established free school meals. RAC has helped create a more supportive environment for the school. They raised awareness around child labor in the community through large meetings and radio spots and strengthened school management committees charged with running the school locally. RAC also worked to ensure that community leaders in each village sign a pledge that they will send their children to school and support the village school. The project also supported the issuance of birth certificates by the local administration and urged authorities to start supporting community schools in the area, thus making a transition from community to public school. Furthermore, the project started some income-generating activities to provide families with an alternative income when they enrol their children in school and stop sending their children to work in mining.


Lessons learned:

The involvement of local authorities and targeted communities has led to enthusiasm and commitment of communities to take part in all activities, in support of political authorities (municipalities and Kéniéba Sitakili), administrative (prefect), school (CAP). In addition, the improved educational infrastructure contributed greatly to the increased enrollment of targeted communities.

Key is to ensure that actions that underlie the erradication of child labour are sustainable. We noted that one of the causes of the development of children's early work is due to the extreme poverty of parents, but also and especially the lack of information on the dangers of hazardous child labor.

 

To effectively fight against child labor, one must not only build infrastructure and raise awareness in and educate communities. It is necessary to also create economically profitable activities for the benefit of communities. Once these conditions are met they adhere to prevention efforts and removal of children from child labour through community and family agreements to send their children to school. Thus, the school is and should be the only alternative to child labor.


Challenges:

The overall main challenge lies in the poverty of the parents and the lack of information about the dangers regarding child labour.

Existing initiatives tend to be somewhat isolated, understaffed, and would benifit from further synergies with other organizations and different government bodies. As child laborers, including those in artisanal mining areas, often tend to fall outside of public policies of health and education, such policies need to be more targeted towards this specific population, with specific focus on specific needs (such as health problems related to mercury use or other mining-related conditions) and integrated with existing mining policies.

During the working process the children inhale highly toxic gases, and with direct physical contact with mercury (with no gans or gas mask). A critical challenge lies in the fact that according to local customs, mercury is seen as having a mystical power that attracts gold. Moreover, eventhough communities know that mercury is dangerous and toxic, contaminated water is thrown out on the spot in the environment where the people live their daily lives. Given that mercury is not biodegradable, it will eventually destroy the groundwater in these areas. Thus, the children of these areas remain exposed if nothing is done in the near future.


Next Steps:

Key actions will include information campaigns, training and awareness raising on the dangers of mercury.

There needs to be strong community support, as well as government support. It is key to adopt a participatory approach, involving grassroots communities and local authorities in all stages of the process as this is critical for ensuring local ownership and sustainability.

8) Junior Farmer Field and Life schools (JFFLS)


Period of implementation: Since 2003

Where: 16 countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East

Main focus: Education and training on agriculture and business to transit from school to work environment

Lead organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)




Results: Over 25,000 children and youth have received relevant vocational and life-skills training and some 2,000 trainers have been trained. Trained youth have returned to their communities with revitalized enthusiasm to train youth peers in their districts. It was increased the number of young people of legal working age engaged in the agricultural sector as well as the number of memberships in local producers’ organizations, cooperatives and unions. Trained youth are aware of the importance of avoiding child labour and alternative agricultural practices that make work safer for those of the appropriate age.


Context and objective:

Child labour in agriculture hinders children from acquiring the education necessary to be equipped with the knowledge and skills needed for future remunerative and productive decent work opportunities as youth, and subsequently as adults. This perpetuates an on-going cycle of poverty, food insecurity and child labour across generations. Low income or agricultural production within households can place vulnerable children and youth at risk of food insecurity and exploitation. Therefore, greater investments in agriculture are needed for rural households to increase their income, food supply and employment opportunities. To achieve this, the Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division at FAO has developed the Junior Farmer Field and Life School (JFFLS) approach which is adapted to address these needs of vulnerable children and youth. The goal of the JFFLS is to empower vulnerable children and youth, and provide them with the livelihood options and gender-sensitive skills needed for long-term food security while reducing their vulnerability to destitution and harmful risk coping strategies, including hazardous child labour. The JFFLS, tested in a variety of countries, has been specifically created to target the specific needs of rural children and youth related to relevant education and training and decent job creation. Stakeholders include the ministries of agriculture, youth, education, labour and trade, local authorities, community groups, UN agencies, rural finance institutions, fair trade organizations, trade, producers’ and farmers’ organizations or cooperatives.


Methodology:

The strength of the JFFLS is its unique learning methodology and curriculum, which combines agricultural, life and entrepreneurship skills in an experiential and participatory learning approach uniquely suited to rural communities and low literacy levels. In this approach, public and private sector actors are engaged, both to institutionalize the field and life schools and to facilitate the transition to decent employment for rural youth of legal working age. JFFLS is aimed at children and youth between the ages of 15 and 24 in the rural youth employment model (primarily those out of school), and the learning components of JFFLS are also used with children from the age of 12 introducing children to knowledge on agricultural and life skills in a safe environment.


The integrated approach moves through the design phase to learning, employment issues, market access and institutionalization. Training curricula are developed by combining a variety of modules chosen jointly by youth and collaborating partners to ensure they meet the actual needs of those children and youth. Materials are always contextualized to the local setting and value-chain opportunities. A guide for facilitators on child labour prevention also includes exercises that make up part of the life skills materials. Trainers train trainers and run JFFLS in their communities to extend outreach. The approach is gender-sensitive, not only ensuring equal male/female participation but also by providing opportunities for both females and males to assume leadership roles (e.g. group leader, head marketer, financial chief, chairperson).
The employment and market access phase supports children of legal working age/youth to safely and successfully make the transition from training to work. The integrated JFFLS approach does this jointly with partners by tackling the major constraints, namely: i) access to climate-friendly agribusiness skills development, ii) access to land, iii) access to credit iv) access to markets, and v) youth inclusion in policy and strategic debates ongoing in the countries concerning their wellbeing and national economic development. This is done by combining the JFFLS training and the facilitation of the creation of youth farmers’ associations and the inclusion of youth in existing farmers’ organizations and federations.
Additionally, a specific child labour prevention training module contributes a set of practical exercises

to raise awareness among JFFLS students and their parents or guardians specifically on child labour and

its harmful effects on children. Through activities such as role play, drama, short stories and a daily

activities time clock for boys and girls, children and their communities learn about child labour and how

it relates to health and safety and education.
- Lessons learned:

JFFLS can reduce the vulnerability of children to all forms of exploitation, through its linkages to formal schooling, supportive organizations and its focus on achieving food security. It also enables participants to have better decision-making skills, making them less vulnerable to the marketplace. However, JFFLS does more than raise awareness among the participants about child labour concerns. It also ensures that the field activities provide positive examples of children’s safe, age-appropriate involvement in agriculture, differentiating it from child labour.


By having focal points in each partner organization, the model made possible to ensure clear responsibilities with positive contributions. Ownership and sustainability were further strengthened through collaboration with central and regional administration and local government authorities.

Partnership is essential to facilitate the transition between school and work. By linking graduates to existing famers associations or cooperatives, the JFFLS approach supports youths to form their own young farmers’ associations or group enterprises. It is also an opportunity to ensure that both boys and girls are given equal opportunities to access employment opportunities. This helps facilitate their transition to gainful employment through access to knowledge, inputs, services, financing and marketing.


Challenges:

Striking the balance between developing the skills of children and youth with what is considered harmful labour is a recognized challenge. Another one can be to ensure that strategic partners are involved in the initial stages in order to provide opportunities for rural youth.


Next Steps:

JFFLS is one example of how coordinated efforts prioritize the skill development of children and youth, fostering greater rural economic development and the reduction and prevention of child labour.

Establishing partnerships among governments, the private sector and producers’ organizations

is a key component for the sustainability of JFFLS. Likewise, strengthening the capacities of

these institutions to understand, prevent and reduce child labour in agriculture is crucial to

ensure the desired impact. It leads to put children and youth considerations at the center of pro-poor agricultural growth policies, plans and programs, as well as the coordination between different institutions and partners, locally and internationally. Thus, an enabling environment is fostered for the reduction of child labour and the increase of decent working opportunities for rural youth.


9) Adopt a School – A Private Sector Corporate Social Responsibility to Tackling Child Labour through Education


Period of implementation: Since 2009

Where: Kenya

Main focus: Education in partnership with the private sector to address child labour situations

Lead organization: Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE) website: http://www.fke-kenya.org/

Results: in Kaptait primary school, in 2011 there has been a 15% increase (from 357 to 400 pupils) in school enrolment and no school drop-outs; school performance has also improved, and for the first time on record, a pupil from the school qualified to join national secondary school; the private company partner contributed to the construction and equipping of two classrooms, leading to an increase in 88% in the enrollment; 100% retention rate; parents and members of the surrounding community developed a positive perception towards education; learners and teachers self esteem was boosted;


Context and objective:

In Kenya, according to the 2008 Child Labour Analytical Report by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, about 1.01 million children are economically active with 753,000 of these being classified as being in child labour. Kenya ratified Convention No. 138 in 1979 and Convention No. 182 in 2001. A National Action Plan against child labour was adopted in 2008. With the support of ILO/Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE), an strategy for the Alternative Provision of Basic Education and Training policy, which targets hard-to-reach children excluded from education, was developed by the Ministry of Education in 2012; a guide on mainstreaming child labour in the education curriculum was developed by the Kenya Institute of Education in 2012 and, currently in 2013, the child labour policy is being finalized and the hazardous child labour list is being revised and updated.

The FKE has been a partner since IPEC was created, raising awareness, helping its member companies to put in place policies barring child labour in their workplaces and reaching out to surrounding communities. While much progress has been made in eliminating child labour in formal enterprises that are FKE members, the problem is still endemic in the surrounding communities in which the companies operate, particularly in the informal sector and in subsistence farming.

The FKE Adopt a School initiative, launched in 2009, links businesses with schools to support income generating activities and school feeding programmes to prevent school drop-outs and encourage families to send their children to school. Evaluation of child labour programmes in Kenya has shown that household poverty and lack of food is the main reason children leave school to work. Studies have also shown that the provision of meals in school immensely attracts and keeps children in school. The “Adopt a School” initiative was designed based on these findings, seeking to engage local employers in very tangible ways in supporting school based income generating activities which are linked to school feeding programmes. Through the partnership among Federation of Kenya Employers, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Labour and the AIG Insurance company, Adopt a School also adds a new dimension to the Ministry of Education’s Home Grown School Feeding Programme, through which the government gives funds to schools to buy school feeding commodities from the local community.


Methodology:

Following consultations with district stakeholders and district education and labour officers, eleven schools in three poverty stricken districts were identified to participate in the initiative based on low enrolment and high drop-out rates. School management and teachers were sensitized on child labour and provided with information on the “Adopt a School” strategy. Members of school management committees were trained on writing proposals so as to be able to respond to requests for proposals from companies.

The schools were supported to develop school farms, with financial, advisory and in-kind assistance coming from FKE, local authorities, local employers, and with the participation of the parents themselves. Harvests and profits were used to put in place school feeding programmes as well as to improve the school environment and provide school supplies.

FKE provided funds to procure initial inputs for income generating activities and school feeding programmes. The schools use the funds to buy seeds, fertilizers and farming equipment. The FKE approached its members in the targeted areas to link employers with schools. It has developed and disseminated a guide for employers on elimination of child labour and a concept note on corporate social responsibility and elimination of child labour to its members. Awareness raising materials were also produced and disseminated to FKE members and schools. A number of viable partnerships were identified and local businesses provided tractors, technical know-how and other forms of support. The parents of the school children also contributed, tilling the land, and in some cases providing certain products, such as beans, for school lunches. A portion of the harvests were kept aside for school meals, while the rest was sold by the schools to raise money for seeds and other essentials for the next year’s crop. In some cases, earnings were also used to improve the school environment, for example to build toilet blocks, or to buy school supplies.


In addition, in collaboration with the district and local child labour committees, children at-risk of dropping out of school were identified and provided with school uniforms and other forms of support to ensure they remained in school. In partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture, families of the children were trained on farming techniques to help increase and diversify food production. Child rights clubs were formed in schools to raise awareness on the issue.
Lessons learned:

The initiative was conceived to be sustainable on two fronts: once put in place, the income generating activities are self-funding as profits from the sale of the harvest are used to buy seeds and other necessities to plant next season’s crop; secondly, the partnerships with the local businesses should carry on beyond the duration of the project, ensuring the schools continue to be provided with equipment, know-how and other kinds of support. This shows the role that employers’ organizations and their member companies can play in preventing and eliminating child labour, not only in their workplaces, but even beyond this by supporting vulnerable children in the communities in which they operate. Other of the lessons learnt is that companies do not necessarily have to commit huge budgets to make a difference. To a company develop a long-term relationship, the support should therefore be phased with priority needs that will attract and keep children in school.


Challenges:

The private sector commitment has not been easily forthcoming. Numerous companies expressed a buy-in to the adopt a school initiative. However, actual commitment of resources is very slow. This is further compounded by the challenge that it is voluntary and companies should expect any form of, e.g. tax exceptions other than the recognition promoted by FKE. To engage companies, a well-thought out strategy for getting the employers on board is essential. And one-on-one discussions were also essential to ensure employers fully understood the initiative and how they could best support it.


Next Steps:

For that, in early 2011, FKE developed information sheets on Adopt a School, Modes of Adopting Schools and sent out 1,300 Call for Support invitations accompanied by the guide for employers on eliminating child labour. The Adopt a School initiative can apply anywhere in the world. It only takes the recruitment and commitment of the private sector. Indeed, it happens regularly through the CSR activities, only that Adopt a School look towards a long-term partnership that is mutually beneficial.



10) Combating Child Labour through Non-Formal Education among Pastoral Communities


Period of implementation: Since 2009

Where: Kenya

Main focus: Education to address child labour among traditional migrating populations

Lead organization: Nanyoiye Community Development Organization and Ministry of Education

website: http://www.education.go.ke/Home.aspx?department=1




Results: In total 900 children were withdrawn and prevented from child labour, of these 200 enrolled in the shephered school program; out of the two hundred, 50 transited to regular formal primary schools; 300 families of children prevented and withdrawn from child labour received support to initiative income generating activities; members of the District Child Labour Committee were sensitized on child labour; government commitment to include the shephered school program in the free primary education funding; community acceptance of education as alternative to herding for their children, expressed by the fact that parents agreed to release their children to go to school; other children in the school also benefitted from the solar lighting installed under the project


Context and objective:

It is estimated that majority of the out of school children in Kenya are in the arid and semi-arid regions of the country as well as in urban informal settlement. The hard to reach children are constrained by in-adequate learning facilities, long distance to schools and cultural practices that inhibit especially girls from pursuing education. Children in these communities end up working at an early age. Some of the activities such as cattle herding, has become dangerous because of armed inter-community cattle raids that puts children in the front line. Girls are forced to drop out of school for marriage at the tender age of 12-14 years. Because of the migratory nature of pastoralism, children are not able to regularly attend school and subsequently drop out of school at early an early age. It is against this background that ILO/IPEC Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) developed a program between the Ministry of Education and the Nanyoiye Community Development Organization, with the partnership with the Ministry of Labour, to initiate a flexible alternative education aiming to promote access to quality basic education to children in pastoralist communities of Kenya.


Methodology:

The process started with the development of a governmental policy framework on Alternative Provision of Basic Education and Training to provide support to other forms of delivering basic education besides formal education. A non-formal learning program was initiated in the Samburu Community that entails children attending classes from mid-afternoon to late evening. The local NGO Nanyoiye Community Development Organization mobilized over 200 child herders to attend what the local community calls Lchekuti (Shephered) classes. Lessons took place in regular government primary school premises. There is therefore no cost on establishing school infrastructure. ILO financial support for the project contribute for the teaching and learning materials, subsides for the teachers´ salary, and solar panels to provide light for classes in the evenings. After eighteen months, the government took over the running costs of the Shephered classes, which had been made legally possible through the alternative provision of basic education policy enacted in 2009. Government funds go towards providing teaching and learning materials, full teachers´ salary and a meal per pupil per day.


Lessons learned:

Working with the government from policy level to community based interventions strengthens sustainability. The fact that TACKLE Project worked with the government from the onset ensured that the shephered school initiative was backed up by a policy framework.


Besides, joint monitoring missions brought together the government, Ministry of Labour and UNICEF. The success of the Shephered schools initiative was amplified by the significant number of learners who graduated from the evening school program to regular formal schooling. The shephered programme therefore served as an initiative to attract children to school. A total of ten shephered schools were included in the first phase of government funding.
Challenges:

Pastoralist communities often live in the least developed parts of the country where basic facilities such as road are lacking. This limited the project ability to maintain regular monitoring of activities. For instance, the roads became impassable during rainy season. Opportunities for monitoring were therefore optimized during the dry seasons. Furthermore, lack of school meals at the onset of the project (funds for school feeding were not factored in the project design) initially hampered consistency in attendance. This was addressed by government providing foodstuffs to the school


Next Steps:

The initiative is absorbed within the government policy of providing education opportunity to every child. It is replicable in the context of national policy on universal basic education. Once the overhead costs (e.g. salaries) are addressed, it is easy to run the flexible education program. Secondly, it should be a short term intervention to bridging the gap between non-school attendance and achievement of universal education goals. The government must provide policy lead in the initiative. It is also an initiative readily acceptable to the community for it did not directly challenge the roles that children are socio-culturally assigned in the community. Rather, the initiative aimed to work within what the community had to influence change from within. The transition of children from shephered classes to regular learning program attests to this.



11) Mainstreaming child labour inspection, monitoring and enforcement


Period of implementation: Since 2011

Where: Fiji

Main focus: Mainstreaming national legislation against child labour as a crosscutting area within the public policies

Lead organization: Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment (MOL)

website: http://www.labour.gov.fj/






Results: Child labour has now been included in Fiji’s Decent Work Country Programme; the Child Labour Unit (CLU) is incorporated within the Ministry of Labour’s Corporate Plan; the monitoring framework created by the CLU brings together state, non-state and private sectors to work to address child labour; the Child Labour Unit has:

  • Trained labour officers on child labour legislation and inspection

  • Trained Inter-Agency Committees in all districts to conduct child labour monitoring

  • Developed a centralized database and a system of referring child labour to the appropriate services.

  • Developed and integrated Fiji’s child labour inspection systems and processes in functions of the labour inspectorate

  • Coordinated the Child Labour Committee which has been endorsed as part of the government legislated National Coordinating Committee on Children

  • Coordinated the development of the Fiji National Action Plan to Eliminate Child Labour and the Child Labour Policy

  • Conducted training on child labour with stakeholders such as the Fiji Police, Ministry of Agriculture and Fiji Sugar Cane Growers Council

  • Supported Sugar Sector compliance with Fair Trade ‘Child labour free’ requirements

  • Withdrawn children from child labour and prevented children at risk from engaging in child labour by providing counselling and putting children back in to school

  • Registered children who are over the minimum legal working age into the National Employment Centre database

  • Prosecuted an employer in a case of hazardous child labour

  • Organised World Day Against Child Labour events and awareness campaigns

  • Undertaken a school-based survey with the Ministry of Education.


Context and objective:

Fiji ratified Convention No. 138 in 2003 and Convention No. 182 in 2002. In 2009, a national legislation review of Fiji’s compliance with the child labour Conventions, commissioned by ILO/IPEC Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE), was carried out. The review recommended action to be taken to bring Fiji’s labour laws in line with the ILO’s child labour Conventions and recognized the need to establish a Child Labour Unit (CLU) to drive action against child labour. According to the Report, while there were provisions for children to be protected from child labour in the Employment Relations Promulgation 2007 and other related laws, action needed to be taken to strengthen law enforcement mechanisms.

In June 2011, the Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment (MOL) established a Child Labour Unit to strengthen institutional capacity of the national and local authorities in the formulation, implementation and enforcement of laws and policies to fight child labour in coordination with the social partners and civil society in Fiji.
Methodology:

With TACKLE support, the CLU spearheaded the development of a Child Labour Monitoring System and centralised database and trained Labour Officers, Inspectors as well as members of Inter-Agency Committees on how to identify and respond to child labour issues. The Child Labour Unit is also leading the national efforts to develop the Fiji National Action Plan to Eliminate Child Labour and Child Labour Policy, and has gone beyond its initial ‘set-up phase’ functions to withdrawing children from hazardous work and prosecuting employers involved. The hazardous child labour list was officially announced on 28th May 2013.

The child labour monitoring system is coordinated by labour inspectors, to oversee and monitor child labour issues at the district/provincial level. It strengthens the existing Inter-Agency Committee (IAC) structure established by the Department of Social Welfare for addressing child protection issues, under the National Coordinating Committee on Children (NCCC), comprising of representatives from government agencies, civil society and community-based groups. The CLU links with the NCCC through a Child Labour Committee (CLC) composed of representatives from different government ministries, workers’ and employers organizations and other stakeholders.

Lessons learned:

This good practice demonstrates that when governments are supported to assume responsibility at the highest level, the inspection and monitoring machinery can be effectively strengthened leading to the enforcement of appropriate sanctions against perpetrators of child labour. It also demonstrates the importance of bringing together the different partners who can and must play a role in the prevention and elimination of child labour.

Child labour monitoring is most effective when mainstreamed into existing structures and mechanisms as this helps ensure its practical implementation and sustainability. Child labour monitoring systems can also strengthen the government’s response in terms of addressing the root causes of child labour. And consultations with a wide range of stakeholders in designing interventions help ensure the development of relevant and pragmatic approaches to eradicate child labour.

Challenges:

The mainstreaming of child labour activities into national sector programmes, and coordination at national and local levels is required to contribute to the sustainability of actions of the CLU. This involved working with the Ministry of Education, Department of Social Welfare, Fiji Police Force, Fiji Island Bureau of Statistics, Poverty Monitoring Unit, National Planning, Ministry of Youth, Agriculture, Immigration and workers’ and employers’ organizations. It is needed to mainstream child labour issues into relevant programmes and plans.


Next Steps:

The government is committed to mainstream child labour issues into national programmes and policies and to allocate resources to ensure child labour is eliminated. The existence of the CLU helps ensure that plans and policies to address child labour are implemented and related laws are enforced.




12) School retention and child labour prevention programme


Period of implementation: Since 2011

Where: Guyana

Main focus: Strengthening education to address child labour

Lead organization: Ministry of Labour, Human Services and Social Security (MLHSSS)

website: http://www.mlhsss.gov.gy/

Results: With free transport to and from school, attendance rates in the primary school jumped from 66% to 94%; SCREAM clubs were created to engage children in creative activities to raise awareness of the dangers of child labour and the importance of education; children are currently preparing for a National Drama Festival, which aims to extend the message of child labour prevention to the wider community; 100 parents and guardians of children attending the schools involved in the program attended workshops on child labour and the value of education; with the free school meals, children benefitted from a more nutritious diet; children are less tired and more focused during school lessons; the after-school tutoring and counselling contributed to better responding to the needs of children and their families; reports are informing on improvements in children’s overall performance in school; teacher turnover rates have declined; with the SCREAM training, a primary school for the first time participated in a national poetry competition in February 2013 and won a prize.


Context and objective:

According to the latest available statistics, an estimated 16% of children aged 5 to 14 years are engaged in child labour. Guyana ratified Convention No. 138 in 1998 and Convention No. 182 in 2001. The minimum age for employment is set at 15 years. A National Steering Committee was established in 2003 to place child labour issues on the national policy and development agenda. Guyana is currently finalizing its hazardous child labour list.


The Government of Guyana provides free, universal education from nursery to secondary school level. In addition, the Ministry of Education’s social support program provides a school uniform every year to all primary and secondary school students and a snack for nursery school students. In some of the hinterland communities, meals are provided for all children in selected schools. However, absenteeism, truancy and high drop-out rates have long been a cause of concern with many children dropping out of school and engaging in child labour when they reach Grade 9.
In 2010, with ILO/IPEC Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) support, national workshops were conducted for Ministry of Education officials, Schools Welfare and Guidance and Counselling Officials as well as National Trade Unionists from all regions of Guyana to increase understanding of the issues involved and pragmatic ways to address it. The Ministry of Education developed and implemented, then, a school mentoring programme in three regions which engages volunteer mentors to foster meaningful relationships with children to contribute to the development of their self-esteem and personal and academic advancement and to prevent truancy, school drop-outs, violence and child labour.
Recognizing the gravity of absenteeism and school drop outs in some regions of Guyana, the Ministry of Labour, Human Services and Social Security (MLHSSS) launched the School Retention and Child Labour Prevention Program in September 2011. In coordination with other government programs, it helps prevent absenteeism, truancy and children from dropping-out of school by providing: free transport to and from school, a hot meal three days a week, an after-school programme to help children with their homework, parenting workshops and psychosocial support for children and their parents/guardians. The teachers are also benefitting from SCREAM (Supporting Children’s Rights through Education, the Arts and the Media) training in order to create a more attractive school/learning environment.
Methodology:

Three schools where selected to participate in the program based on the number of children enrolled and how far from school the children live. Consultations with parents and teachers in the three target schools identified the main reasons why children miss or drop-out of school as: families finding it difficult to provide their children with meals to take to school; children often having to travel long distances to get to school as their families can´t afford to pay bus fares and buses are irregular; and difficulties in providing all the school supplies children need despite the Ministry of Education’s social support program. In one area, children had to paddle at least four miles down a creek before reaching a highway where they either had to walk or get a bus to school. To find solutions to these problems, the MLHSSS designed and implemented a multi-faceted program. A project management committee, composed of the schools’ Head Teachers, the Coordinator of the School Retention Program, parents from the Parent Teachers Association and other community members was established in July 2011 to oversee implementation of the following components:


1. Bus service – free transport to and from school.

2. Nutritional support – all students were provided with hot meals three days a week.

3. After-school tutoring for children – afternoon remedial classes were provided for children in need of support with basic numeracy and literacy skills as well as and with homework (1 ½ hours three times a week). Those who remained for these extra classes were provided with a snack.

4. Awareness-raising – teachers and school administrators were trained to better respond to school drop-outs, truancy and child labour using IPEC’s Supporting Children’s Rights through Education, the Arts and the Media (SCREAM) methodology.

5. Counselling for parents and children –psychosocial support for both children and their parents.

6. Parenting education – to ensure that parents have an understanding of child labour and its adverse effects on children and the society as a whole, as well as the value of education and the importance of children completing both primary and secondary education. Three day workshops were organized for this purpose, as well as to equip parents with vital skills to be able to raise children.


Lessons learned:

The identification and addressing of barriers to education can have an immediate effect on school attendance rates and thus help prevent families and children from resorting to child labour.

There is a definite connection between school attendance, transportation and hot meal support. The project has demonstrated that depending on the demographic situation of children and their families and access to resources these components are critical as social protection measures to retain children in the school system.

Addressing the needs of teachers is also important. Although this was not originally planned for, teachers also took the buses to and from school with a dual advantage for the students: teachers also arrived punctually and were able to start lessons on time and their presence on the buses helped maintain order and discipline among the students.

While having the right laws and policies in place is essential, action taken at the level of the Ministry to work with communities and to design programmes which address challenges children face in going to and staying in school are equally important.
Challenges:

Addressing low school attendance requires a holistic approach to ensure children and their parents are provided the necessary support. Consultation with key stakeholders, in particular parents, school administrators and teachers, is essential in planning action to be taken.


Next Steps:

The MLHSS is seeking to mainstream the program into its service delivery program, and is seeking support from the private sector to do so. The project has the potential to be adopted as a model and rolled out across the country, linking it to other programs implemented by other Ministries, in a coordinated, nationwide approach to ensure children are in the best position to be able to attend school.




13) Sports coaches become mentors to children in or at risk of child labour


Period of implementation: Since 2010

Where: Jamaica

Main focus: Sports leaders engaged to address child labour through influencing parents and communities

Lead organization: Ministry of Education website: http://www.moe.gov.jm/




Results: 290 children attended football league clinics over a period of three months; around 80 children in or at risk of child labour were referred to the appropriate authorities for follow up; around 30 councillors, teachers and coaches have been empowered to use SCREAM to raise awareness on child labour in schools and their communities; around 10,000 people in the Maverly community have been sensitized to the issue of child labour and community members are beginning to report child labour cases to the government Child Development Agency; the football clinics were featured on national television in December 2011, helping to raise public awareness on child labour and the strategy of the football clinics to address the problem;


Context and objective:

In Jamaica, according to the UNICEF MICS 2005 report, 6.1% of children aged 5-14 are engaged in child labour. Jamaica ratified Convention No. 138 in 2000 and Convention No. 182 in 2003. In Jamaica, child labour has its roots in poverty, but also in cultural and social practices and attitudes. The Ministry of Labour and Social Security has developed a National Child Labour Policy, which they expect to finalize during the course of 2013, and a Child Labour Unit is created within the Ministry. There is a draft National Action Plan against child labour from 2004 and a hazardous child labour list was drafted in 2011. Child labour is included in the Child Care and Protection Act and in the draft Occupational Safety and Health act. In 2010, ILO/IPEC Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) supported the Ministry of Education in the review of the National Education Policy as a result of which a clause addressing child labour was added.


In 2010, the Ministry of Education, the Jamaica Teachers Unions, the Caribbean Sports Reach, the Jamaica Football Federation, with ILO/IPEC Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) support, launched an initiative in the inner city community of Maverley, training guidance councillors, teachers and sports coaches on child labour and how to respond to it.
Methodology:

This initiative was conceived to use football as a means of raising awareness on child labour and changing attitudes to bring about changes in behaviour. The advantages of using football in the fight against child labour are many. Football not only brings joy and play into the lives of children, it is also a sport that can help children acquire life-skills and grow in confidence and self-esteem. For children whose mental or physical health has been damaged by child labour, football can help support the healing process and provide children with a safe and friendly environment in which to develop fully. Football is also an activity that favours inclusivity and non-discrimination, thereby reaching out to all children regardless of race, gender, religion and level of ability.


This initiative was organised in conjunction with the 2010 World Day Against Child Labour. Caribbean Sports Reach, working together with the Jamaica Football Federation, the Ministry of Education, KSADA, Insports, and the Jamaica Teachers Unions, identified schools from an inner city community with high levels of poverty and crime and a deteriorating social and physical infrastructure.
Guidance councillors and physical education teachers from twenty three schools, as well as football coaches from the surrounding communities, attended a two day workshop on child labour in June 2010. The workshop built awareness and knowledge on child labour and introduced the participants to the mentorship programme as well as relevant tools, including ILO-IPEC’s Supporting Children’s Rights through Education, the Arts and the Media (SCREAM) methodology and the Information kit for teacher, educators and their organizations. Media were invited to a press event to mark the conclusion of the workshops and the launch of the clinics, and also to observe and report on the clinics. Around 2,000 flyers were produced and distributed in schools and the communities to advertise the clinics and highlight child labour issues.
Following the training, the guidance councillors identified children in or at risk of child labour. The children were enrolled in community football clubs run by the Kingston and St Andrew Football Association and participated in football clinics. The clinics were held twice weekly for a three-month period, on Wednesdays after school and on Saturday mornings, times at which children would typically be working on the streets selling goods and services. 290 children aged 10-16 attended the football league clinics. During the clinics, the coaches used the SCREAM methodology to raise awareness on the dangers of child labour as well as to impart life skills with the aim of bringing about changes in behaviour, focusing on principles of respect, conflict resolution, setting goals and the importance of staying in school. Based on their needs, children were referred to guidance counsellors and other social services but this was done on an ad-hoc basis as there is no formal referral process for children in or at risk of child labour. Several community meetings were held during which parents were informed about child labour and children’s rights. One month after the mentorship programme ended, guidance councillors followed up with the children’s parents/guardians to assess changes in attitudes and behaviour vis-à-vis child labour.
Lessons learned:

This good practice demonstrates the importance of engaging community members who have access to children in or at risk of child labour and who are in a position to have a positive influence. A significant learning is a greater understanding of the key role that sports coaches play in influencing norms and values in tightly knit urban communities and how this can be harnessed. Community members respond to coaches in a very different way than they do to councillors or social workers. The coach and the sporting events that they are involved in are able to draw the attention and interest of parents or guardians who may otherwise not be easily reached. Parents that may not attend a parents and teachers association meeting are more likely to go to a match in which their child is playing. Coaches thus enjoy a wide sphere of influence and tend to be viewed as somewhat separate from the school establishment. They enjoy the respect of the community and when coaches raise an issue community members stop to listen.


Challenges:

The roots of child labour in Jamaica in poverty associated with cultural and social practices and attitudes, what explains the success of the initiative by engaging social, sports and cultural leaders to influence community and parents.



Next Steps:

As community mentors trained on child labour issues, the football coaches were able to influence norms, values and behaviour in high-risk communities not only for the limited duration of the clinics, but also beyond it by integrating what they had learnt in their daily work. Councillors, teacher and coaches can identify, respond to and refer cases of child labour. The children were given the opportunity to stay in the community football clubs and remain in contact with the mentors. The football coaches continued to use the SCREAM methodology to raise awareness and impart life skills to children during future sports programmes.




14) Addressing gaps in labour legislation


Period of implementation: From 2009 to 2012

Where: Papua New Guinea

Main focus: Alignment and enforcement mechanisms for adequate application of the national legislation

Lead organization: Department of Labour and Industrial Relations (DLIR)

website: http://www.ned.gov.pg/



Results: Increase of the national ownership on child labour legislation; Child Labour Unit within the Department of Labour and Industrial Relations (DLIR); creation of Provincial Child Labour Committees; PNG’s National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour was elaborated; Child Labour Inspection and the Referral Forms was designed; a hazardous child labour list has been produced.


Context and objective:

Although Papua New Guinea (PNG) ratified the child labour Conventions in 2000, little had been done to improve legislation to ensure compliance with the Conventions. In 2009, ILO/IPEC Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) supported the first national legislative review on policies and legislations concerning child labour. As a result, the Department of Labour and Industrial Relations (DLIR) agreed to revise the Employment Act 1978 to bring it in line with the Conventions and develop a hazardous child labour list through a tripartite process. Papua New Guinea is a country that did not benefit from any IPEC support prior to TACKLE. The legislative review responded to an identified need and it provides the necessary legal framework through which the country can address the issue of child labour. The Government also organised a national child labour forum and child labour road-shows in six provinces as a result of which ILO constituents recommended the establishment of Provincial Child Labour Committees.


Before the start of the project, Papua New Guinea had ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1993) and the ILO child labour Conventions (2000). Once a member State ratifies an ILO Convention, it is under the obligation to ensure that national laws are brought in line with the provisions of that Convention. While there were a number of different laws touching on the issue of child labour in Papua New Guinea, including the Employment Act (1978), the Lukautim Pikinini Act, the Apprenticeship and Trade Testing Act, the Minimum Age (Sea) Act, the Defence Act, the Criminal Code (Sexual Crimes and Offences against Children) Act (2002), they were on the whole seen as inadequate and in many respects inconsistent with Conventions Nos. 138 and 182.
In addition to finding the laws to be inadequate and inconsistent with the Conventions, the “Review of the policies and legislative framework concerning child labour in Papua New Guinea” also found that there was no effective mechanism for the enforcement of laws, identifying this as a major area requiring immediate attention. Concerning policies to address the issue, the review found that while there were no specific policies on child labour, a number of education policies existed, including the National Education Plan (2005-2014) and the Universal Basic Education Plan (2010). However, under these policies primary education is not compulsory and while elementary school (which includes children aged 6-8) is free, primary school (which includes children aged 9-14) is not. The review set out a series of recommendations to bring the laws in line with the ILO child labour Conventions.

Methodology:

Following the legislative review, a National Child Labour Forum was held in July 2011. As a result, priority actions to be part of the National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour were identified including: (i) Addressing the gaps in the Employment Act concerning child labour; (ii) Determining the hazardous child labour list for PNG; (iii) Mainstreaming the work on child labour into the functions of the DLIR; and, (iv) Developing a system for Child Labour Inspection and Monitoring.


Tripartite consultations took place for the revision of the Employment Act. A preliminary analysis of the PNG Employment Act 1978 was conducted in 2011 and gaps highlighted. For example, it was noted that the Employment Act does not adequately define and prohibit the worst forms of child labour, including the commercial sexual exploitation of children and child trafficking. A tripartite workshop in 2012, led to the drafting of provisions in the proposed Employment Act Reform to address the gaps, for example, now prohibiting hazardous work for boys and girls and raising the minimum age from 16 to 18 years of age.
To strength the enforcement mechanisms it was held a training workshop for labour officials, that started up the process of establishing a Child Labour Unit in the DLIR, drafting a hazardous child labour list and developing child labour monitoring and inspection forms. The Joint Child Labour/Common Rule Road-show, in 2013, trained over 200 tripartite plus participants who agreed that the way forward was to establish Provincial Child Labour Committees (PCLC) to lead action against child labour at the provincial, community and local level government. The DLIR also informed the participants on actions taken to establish the Child Labour Unit and the new Child Labour Inspection and Referral Forms.
Lessons learned:

Only with the revision of the Employment Act it was possible to provide the basic legal framework on child labour, based on which monitoring and enforcement mechanisms are strengthened to ensure that the law is enforced and perpetrators are brought to justice. The extensive consultations carried out by the DLIR and TACKLE led to greater appreciation by national stakeholders of the urgent need to address child labour issues.


Next Steps:

The process for improving national legislation on child labour is slow as it requires both government commitment and resources for reform. In PNG, considerable time and efforts were put into raising awareness on the concept of child labour as a necessary step before labour law reform could be agreed upon.


Following up:

Additional contributions to increase the national ownership and the sustainability of the processes were brought by the inclusion of the Provincial Child Labour Committees in the revised Employment Act and the endorsement of PNG’s National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour, the Child Labour Inspection and the Referral Forms, and the drafting of a hazardous child labour list. The initiatives demonstrated that although legislative and policy reform may be time consuming and slow, the groundwork for effective reform, laying a solid foundation for the process, and ensuring ownership, begins with legislative reviews and inclusive multi-sectoral consultations at all levels.




15) Ratification of the child labour Conventions


Period of implementation: 2010-2011

Where: Sierra Leone

Main focus: Strengthening of national legislation to address child labour in a post-conflict environment

Lead organization: Ministry of Labour and Social Security

website: http://www.statehouse.gov.sl/index.php/presedential-cabinet



Results: a list of hazardous work prohibited to children under 18 years was developed in consultative workshops in different regions; child labour National Technical Steering Committee (NTSC) was established to oversee child labour related activities; the Ministry of Labour and Social Security to set up a Child Labour Unit (CLU); a National Action Plan (NAP) for the elimination of child labour was developed; a training course on labour inspection and child labour monitoring was run for police, officials from the Ministry of Labour’s Labour and Factory Inspectors, officials from other ministries, and representatives from workers’ and employers’ organizations; a workshop on reporting to the ILO supervisory system on the application of Conventions was organized;


Context and objective:

With Sierra Leone coming out of almost eleven years of civil war in 2002, child labour has long been overshadowed by the broader crises of conflict and poverty. The consequences of the civil war on the child labour situation were devastating, in particular due to the high number of child soldiers and war orphans which resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of street children, children forced to work in mines, child victims of trafficking, as well as the number of young girls engaged in commercial sexual exploitation as a means of survival.


At the start of the initiatives, in 2008, Sierra Leone had ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) and additional Regional Treaties on human and child welfare. Sierra Leone had also passed the Education Act (2004), the Child Rights Act (2007) - which set the minimum age for employment at 15 and increased the age of compulsory education to 15 - and other labour related regulations that protect children. However, according to UNICEF MICS 2010 report, 50% of children aged 5-14 are involved in child labour. It was therefore evident that child labour and education related laws were not enforced, due mainly to a lack of resources within the Ministry of Labour and Social Security.
Following a process which began in 2010, Conventions Nos. 138 and 182 were ratified by the Sierra Leone Parliament in January 2011. The Instruments of Ratification were presented to the ILO Director General by the Sierra Leone tripartite delegation at the International Labour Conference in June 2011. The Minimum Age Declaration was also included in the instruments of ratification, confirming the minimum age of employment as 15 years.
Thus, the government of Sierra Leone had indicated that it would appreciate the ILO’s assistance and then ILO/Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) became the first IPEC project in Sierra Leone. Its goal was to strengthening and put in place mechanisms to implement the national legislation on child labour.

Methodology:

The project gathers engagement of the Child Labour Unit, the Minister of Employment, Labour and Social Security, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs. It focused on building institutional capacity to ensure that the government would be in a position to continue its efforts to further strengthen the legal framework and monitoring and enforcement mechanisms beyond the duration of the project.


Following the signing of the Implementation Agreement between ILO/IPEC and the Government of Sierra Leone, a child labour National Technical Steering Committee (NTSC), comprising all key partners and stakeholders, was established to oversee all child labour related activities and discussions in the country. TACKLE supported the Ministry of Labour and Social Security to set up a Child Labour Unit (CLU), which became functional in April 2010. This Unit consists of two staff assigned by the Ministry to work on child labour issues. TACKLE provided key equipment and guidance on the CLU’s modus operandi as well as advice on its scope of work. The basics to keep the unit running beyond the project (staff salaries, subscription for the internet modem, etc.) are provided by the Ministry.
Following its creation, the CLU championed the ratification process for Conventions Nos. 138 and 182, organizing regular meetings of the NTSC and following up with Parliament, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as well as with key government officials. The Minister of Employment, Labour and Social Security developed a cabinet paper to justify the ratification of the Conventions. With the agreement of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs, the cabinet paper was presented and approved on the 16th of June 2010. The document was then forwarded to Parliament and was formally tabled in for discussions and ratification. The ILO Conventions 138 and 182 were ratified by the Sierra Leone Parliament on 20 January 2011. The Instruments of Ratification were presented to the ILO Director General by the Sierra Leone tripartite delegation at the International Labour Conference in June 2011. The project provided technical guidance to the CLU in order to facilitate the ratification process.
A draft National Action Plan (NAP) for the elimination of child labour was developed in collaboration with the CLU following a workshop organized in August 2012 to assist the national partners to achieve the goals set by The Hague Roadmap for achieving the elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour. In order to strengthen enforcement mechanisms, a training course on labour inspection and child labour monitoring was organized in April 2013 for police, officials from the Ministry of Labour’s Labour and Factory Inspectors and officials from other ministries as well as representatives from workers’ and employers’ organizations. A workshop on reporting to the ILO supervisory system on the application of Conventions was also organized in April 2013, to help constituents better understand the reporting requirements, in particular vis-à-vis the child labour Conventions.
Lessons learned:

The ratification and harmonization of the child labour Conventions into national legislation can be achieved, even in the most challenging of political and social environments, within a relatively short period of time.


Challenges:

A critical element of the project was to support the national reconciliation process and to ensure the successful reintegration of children engaged in armed conflict.


Next Steps:

Prioritising action to strengthen national leadership and ownership and empower the relevant national institutions, in particular through the establishment of the NTSC and the CLU, helped to provide a strong basis for ensuring sustainability and impact. The CLU will remain functional within the Ministry’s general budget and will continue to organize NTSC meetings beyond the duration of the project. The draft NAP is currently being reviewed. The CLU needs further support to finalize the NAP and ensure its adoption by the government.



16) Tackling child labour through education – An innovative approach to drafting the list of hazardous work for children


Period of implementation: 2008 – 2012

Where: South Sudan

Main focus: Participatory approach to elaborate the list of hazardous work for children

Lead organization: Ministry of Labour and Public Service

website: http://www.goss-online.org/magnoliaPublic/en/ministries/Labour.html

Results: list of hazardous work for children was elaborated with participation of 30 representatives from employers’ and workers’ organizations, various technical ministries in charge of economic sectors where children are likely to be employed, and a total of 10 States representatives.


Context and objective:

South Sudan is a new member of ILO and has ratified the child labour Conventions Nos. 138 and 182 in 2012. Although the Labour Bill is in its final stages of discussion by the Council of Ministers, there is still an urgent need for a legislative framework to support child labour interventions. Through the National Steering Committee on child labour (NSC) the Government and partners prioritized the drafting of a list of hazardous work for children in South Sudan as part of ILO/Tackling Child Labour through Education (TACKLE) project activities. In South Sudan, the approach was innovative in that it involved the effective participation of the community and governments and a flexible process of decreeing/amending the list.


Methodology:

The process of drafting the list of hazardous work for children began in November 2012 with the creation of a National Steering Committee on child labour (NSC) to spearhead the process. It has 15 members drawn from Ministries of Labour, Education, Gender and Children, Youth, Petroleum and Mining, Agriculture, Fishing, the NGO African Institute for Children Studies, the NGO Confident Children out of Conflict, the INGO BRAC and the INGO Save the Children. The committee was supported by a drafting committee comprised of Ministry of Labour staff – Occupational Health and Safety officer, Child Labour Unit Coordinator, two labour inspectors, Legal Adviser in the Ministry of Labour – as well as the focal point person in Ministry of Education and an ILO officer. Technical committee members were trained on child labour and on the process of drafting a list of hazardous work for children.

A stakeholder consultation meeting was held, in 2013, for 30 representatives drawn from employers’ and workers’ organizations, various technical ministries in charge of economic sectors where children are likely to be employed. In total, 10 States took part in the exercise. Following that, a national validation workshop is planned as part of World Day Against Child Labour 2013 events. To fast-track the process, the NSC will send the list through a Council of Ministers meeting for deliberation, amendments and eventual decreeing by the Minister. In the future, the list will be updated through NSC members approving a recommended adjustment and forwarding it to the Minister for Labour and Council for Ministers.
Lessons learned:

Broad consultations with stakeholders at national and State levels is essential for wide acceptance of the list of hazardous work for children and other related laws and policies. Avoiding the cumbersome parliamentary process also allows for more flexibility when updating the list in the future.


Challenges:

The development of the list of hazardous work for children through a consultative process with ILO tripartite partners as it is adequate, in an environment where there was an urgent need for a legislative framework to support child labour interventions, especially considering that South Sudan is a new member of ILO and has ratified its Conventions in 2012. South Sudan managed to do it in an innovative approach through the effective participation of the community and governments.


Next Steps:

The final List of Hazardous Work for children will be working document that will enable labour inspectors and other authorized officers to protect children from hazardous work. The list is also a working document that is living, meaning that it can be updated through NSC members approving a recommended adjustment and forwarding it to the Minister for Labour and Council for Ministers - hence cost and time efficient to sustain.



17) The ILO SCREAM programme – Supporting Children’s Rights through Education, the Arts and the Media


Period of implementation: Since 2002

Where: Globally

Main focus: Education, arts and media tools to help youth to understand and mobilize against child labour

Lead organization: International Labour Organization (ILO)

website: http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/Scream/lang--en/index.htm

Results: SCREAM initiatives have been carried out in over 65 countries, both industrialized and developing, and the SCREAM Education Pack is now available in 19 languages;


Context and objective:

Since the causes of child labour are many and complex, the International Labour Organization (ILO) tackles the issue using a multifaceted approach, from promoting ratification and effective implementation of ILO child labour Conventions, to mobilizing key sectors of society in the worldwide movement against child labour. Young people, in particular, have an important role to play in this movement by raising awareness on issues of social justice and exerting their influence locally and globally to bring about social change. By empowering young people, giving them responsibility and recognizing the value of their contribution, we can harness the wealth of creativity and commitment that they can bring to the campaign to eliminate child labour. To this end, the ILO/International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) created the SCREAM – Supporting Children’s Rights through Education, the Arts and the Media – programme.
SCREAM is an education and social mobilization initiative to help educators worldwide, in formal and non-formal education settings, to cultivate young people’s understanding of the causes and consequences of child labour. The programme places heavy emphasis on the use of the visual, literary and performing arts and provides young people with powerful tools of self-expression while supporting their personal and social development. Through SCREAM, thousands of young people around the world have become engaged in fruitful initiatives to raise awareness against child labour as individuals or in groups and have become young advocates to promote a fair globalization.
Methodology:

The education pack forms the basis of the SCREAM programme and is made up of 14 educational modules and a User’s Guide, which can be downloaded from the ILO website. The SCREAM modules enable young people to express themselves through different forms of artistic media, such as drama, creative writing, music and the visual arts in a manner specific to their culture and traditions. In addition to raising their own awareness and that of their peers, young people gain skills and confidence to address their message to their families, friends, neighbours, teachers, local communities and authorities. In this way, young people and adults become partners for social change.

The modules are flexible “building blocks” that can be adapted to the educators’ context and their constraints, whether in time or resources. They are intended to be adaptable to any geographical or cultural context and to any formal or non-formal setting. The activities may be part of a year-long education programme or a short workshop – activities should be planned to suit the conditions and needs of those involved.

A number of other informative and inspiring materials have been developed within the framework of the programme, including a DVD of SCREAM activities around the world, a video clip on child labour combining images with music from the “Child to Child Solidarity Concert – A future without Child Labour”, by the Suzuki Orchestra; postcards, songs and poems on child labour.



- Lessons learned:

Acknowledging them as powerful tools of self-expression, the programme places heavy emphasis on the use of the visual, literary and performing arts and provides support to young people while in their personal and social development. 

Art is a powerful medium to educate and inform communities on the issue of child labour, its causes, implications and consequences. The SCREAM learning process is deeply rooted in the arts, whether visual, literary or performing, making it a particularly powerful tool for reaching young people. It combines fun and entertainment with a means to develop confidence, memory, self-discipline and self-esteem. 

In this era of global digital communications and instantaneous information, the role of the media is crucial in any education and social mobilization programme. Young people need to understand how the media works in all its forms and how they, as an important social group, interact with it. Working with the media is becoming a necessary skill in society today.
- Challenges:

To ensure access to basic education is fundamental. Free universal primary education is one of the main ways to break the poverty vicious cycle. Thus, SCREAM program equips young people with knowledge and information twinned with the tools, skills, and confidence to take action and to publicly inform members of their communities about what they have learned.



Next Steps:

Within the context of the SCREAM programme, an increasing number of young people, students and committed educators are organizing and implementing SCREAM initiatives. Activities are often endorsed and supported by local and national governments, in particular Ministries of Education, including extensive teacher training programmes and involving local artistic groups.



In the context of the worldwide movement for the progressive elimination of child labour and in conjunction with the SCREAM programme, IPEC established the 12 to 12 Partnership Initiative. This initiative aims to harness the commitment and motivation of different partners through a range of joint action, activities and programmes.


18) Union strategies for the prevention and eradication of child labor in the Southern Cone


Period of implementation: 2002 to 2006

Where: Mercosur

Main focus: Capacity development to optimize the participation of workers organizations to stimulate public policies and legal norms against child labour

Lead organization: Coordinadora de Centrales Sindicales del Cono Sur (CCSCS) / Comisión para la

Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil (CETI). website: www.ccscs.org email: trabajoinfantil@faecys.org.ar

trabajoinfantil@adinet.com.uy proyectos@ctera.org.ar

Results: unions policy coordination on child labor in five countries sustained over time, with incidence in tripartite bodies; contributions for the ratification of ILO Convention 138 on Minimum Age for Employment and 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour and the Convention on the Rights of the Child in each of the countries; contributions for the establishment and strengthening of public policies on decent work and protection of the rights of child;


Context and objective:

The Coordinadora de Centrales Sindicales del Cono Sur (CCSCS) formally began operations in 1986 and in the mid-90s begins to participaate in the debates on child labour in the region. In October 1998, its representatives participated "The role of trade unionism in the fight against child labor " ILO International Training Centre. This event introduced the knowledge of the problem and the ideas of what would be

the future actions of the CETI / CCSCS. It was then started the Action Plan for the Southern Cone. After that, during the Regional Education Seminar Workers on Child Labour, in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, in 1998, the representatives defined the profile of the Plan Action, organizational issues and possible lines for obtaining resources. In 2000, it was established the Comisión para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil (CETI) of the Coordinadora de Centrales Sindicales del Cono Sur. Its goal is to contribute to the prevention and eradication of child labor in the countries of Southern Cone through the specialization of union actors at all levels organizational. Its specific objectives are:

- to institutionalize at all levels of the union treatment approach and monitoring of child labor issues.

- to help with insertion union actors at different levels organizational instruments to appropriate allowing for a multiple approach and comprehensive child labor issues.

- to participate actively and effectively at sectoral, regional, national and local.

- to contribute to the institutional participation of trade unions in action direct aim at the prevention and eradication of child labor.

- to contribute to the institutional participation of trade unions in action direct aim at the prevention and eradication of child labor.


Methodology:

The initiatives led to the regional participation of union representatives in the Working Subgroup Relations, Employment and Social Security (Working Subgroup 10) of the Southern Cone to address and monitor child labor, and also in National Commissions for Prevention and Eradication of Child Labour in each country. From 2002 to 2006, it was developed the project of integrated training events called "Union Strategies for prevention and eradication of child labor "sponsored by ILO / IPEC and the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECI).

From 2007 on, it was prioritized action to promote the application of policies and tools agreed at the national and regional meetings, to conduct the revision of the conceptual frame of the theme and the work that has been done on child labour, and to participate in international and regional debates occurred in the multilateral bodies of Southern Cone.

The path taken by the union sector of the Southern Cone in the search for the prevention and eradication of child labor could be summarized as: insertion of the problem of child labor in union agenda, training and training for managers and technicians of the different levels of the union, actions of social awareness, creation of multi-sectorial areas at local level, contribution with human and technical resources, follow up of actions of governments and NGOs.


- Lessons learned:

The eradication of child labour has a political economic nature therefore requires solutions that involve states. The insertion of the child labor problem in the union agenda requires an institutional commitment to facilitate the increasing specialization and treatment of the problem by the actors union.


- Challenges:

Lack of specific funds to all unions, the limited understanding of the strategy by the members of the CETI, and the inclusion of the issue in the budget of the Union Central competes with other priorities.


Next Steps:

To continue the activities with unions on child labour requires further specialization of the stakeholders, taking into account: the level of representation of over 25 million workers, the persistence of problem in the region, the potential of trade unions, the level of integration in the national and regional levels, the need to continue to contribute to efficient policies.

For that, it is important to consider:

- The level of organizational development, representation and articulation of the trade unions and its political will to address the problem;

- Ensuring appropriate strategies for policy development;

- The financial and human resources to develop the project;

- Levels of social dialogue in each country.

19) Experience to prevent and eliminate child labor in the sector influence of Sugarcane in El Salvador


Period of implementation: Since 2002

Where: El Salvador

Main focus: Actions from private sector to prevent and eliminate child labor in the area of ​​influence of the sugarcane plantations

Lead organization: Fundazúcar www.fundazucar.org main contact: Rosa Vilma Rodríguez, Directora

Ejecutiva Fundazúcar, rosavilma.rodriguez@asociacionazucarera.net

Results: Decrease by 85% of children in child labor in the cane fields; most of the sugarcane plantations owners have begun to fulfill their responsibilities on the prevention and eradication of child labor; the public sector partnerships allows private companies to have the backing of public policy and, in turn, contribute to the policy implementation; agricultural engineers, foremen, communities, schools, girls, children, adolescents, families engaged in the awareness plan; standardization in the framework of the monitoring activities; the flexibility of the inspection procedures so that the list of prohibited work activities is considered in the process during the cane harvest period; the creation of the zero tolerance policy on child labor.

Context and objective:

In 2002, it was signed a Memorandum of Understanding between the Association of Sugar Producers, the Government of El Salvador and the ILO in establishing specific commitments of the parties to intervene in the sugarcane sector and develop a set program to demonstrate the feasibility of eradicating child labor in sugarcane plantations. Following a complaint made by an international NGO, in 2004, about the presence of child labor in the cane industry, it became clear the importance of putting it as one of the main topics on the agenda of the sector. The sugarcane business sector then developed the initiative to prevent and eradicate child labor, in a partnership of Fundazúcar, ILO, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Education and the National Council for Childhood and Adolescence (CONA).


Methodology:

The initiative was developed with actions on awareness about the problem, having control measures on its presence in the value chain, partnerships with the public sector to inspect and surveillance in the workplace, education and productive alternatives for girls, children, adolescents and their families. That had made visible to the different actors in the sugar zones (business, target communities, community leaders, teachers and institutions), that the involvement of child labor in the productive chain of the production of sugar cane set of conditions that affect the lives of children and adolescents, ignoring regulations concerning security and protection of their rights and exposed producers to financial and legal penalties.


The partnerships between the public and private sectors, mainly between FUNDAZUCAR, the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Education, coordinated efforts and ensured that the responsibilities of each actor are leveraged and supported. Also was created the Code of Conduct of the Sugar Association of El Salvador that formalizes the commitments to prevent and eliminate child labor, allowing a broad comprehension on what is expected by the companies. It was established the Zero Tolerance Policy on Child Labor in purchase contracts, with a clause referring to the presence of children in cutting cane places. Monitoring programs were developed for sugar cane harvest periods to identify the incidence and recurrence of child labor in hazardous activities, with the participation of members of communities and Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare of El Salvador.
Lessons learned:

The capacity of the Ministry of Labor to implement its functions in the cane sector has favored both the relevance of its work as well as the partnership with the sugarcane sector.

The recognition of the presence of child labor in the formal sector and in its value chain allows the companies to take specific responsibilities with their prevention and eradication.
Challenges:

The cultural roots of child labor in communities that are built on cane production.


Next Steps:

Make the prevention and eradication of child labor a business leadership decision favors the assumption of a long-term commitment that requires investment, respect to the agreed policies and the establishment of strategic partnerships with the public sector, going beyond direct care to children identified in child labor.

To achieve the goal of zero children and adolescents working in the sugar sector it is still required to have awareness plan, to make an ongoing effort to advance progressively in the transformation of cultural patterns that legitimize child labor, to maintain field audits every two years, and to find real alternative income generation for youth.

To replicate this practice, it is also important to start from the conviction that it is possible to prevent and eliminate child labor in sector and summon all the mills in the country, to create partnerships with the public sector, at least with the portfolios of work and education, to have a diagnosis of the situation of child labor for understanding what is the problem, what actions are to be undertaken and which actors must be involved.




20) Local Committees, Provincial and Municipal Prevention and Eradication of Child Labour: A Local Joint


Period of implementation: Since 2005

Where: Dominican Republic

Main focus: Strengthening of public management structures to mainstreaming the fight against child labour within the public policies at the local level

Lead organization: Ministry of Labour website: www.set.gov.do email: Info@mt.gob.do

Results: 43 Local Committees, Provincial and Municipal management were created, reporting to the National Steering Committee to Combat Child Labour, to coordinate public policy to advance actions to prevent and eliminate child labor and its worst forms, and protect the work of the adolescent; strengthening of the decentralization of the national agenda against child labor and labor protection of adolescents; the joint work that was built among all the local representatives of different institutions and sectors to address the problem; the local dynamics that was generated in the committees based on the recognition of the local context; the consistency that was achieved within the policy framework , between different sectors and national and local levels.


Context and objective:

In 2005, the government of Dominican Republic, through its National Steering Committee to Combat Child Labour, established the Committee of Provincial and Municipal Local Prevention and Eradication of Child Labour in every province and municipality in the country where there is a representation of Local Labour Ministry. The objective was to coordinate its public policies aiming to engage local institutions at decentralized level of public policies in the comprehensive agenda of prevention and eradication of child labor and its worst forms, and the protection of teenager´s labour. The initiative was developed in partnership among the National Steering Committee to Combat Child Labour, government representatives, employers, workers, civil society organizations, ILO and UNICEF.


Methodology:

The local Committees are bodies of management and integration within the national territory to address child labour, and also a platform to manage the National Strategic Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Children from 2006 to 2016. Likewise, it is established that the conditional cash transfer programs and schools´ support resources should connect with social policy to girls, children, young workers and their families. The Committees should then develop an Action Plan that responds to the commitments of the country, based in The Roadmap to Make the Dominican Republic a country Free of Child Labour and Worst Forms 2016, the National Strategic Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour from 2006 to 2016, the Action Plan Against Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Minors, in the areas of ​​prevention, protection and care, and the elimination of child labor. The Committees are led by the Local Representative of the Ministry of Labour, which engage other departments, including inspection, social care and protection services. Their actions are coordinated and monitored technically by the Unit Against Child Labour

of the Ministry of Labour. The unit, in turn, connects with inspection, which identify children and adolescent workers and their families, who are referred to social care and protection services.
Lessons learned:

The existence of the regulatory framework does not assure an offer of services and actions according to the magnitude of the problem; local policies offer opportunities to strengthen national strategies given that the actions are related to the conditions in the local contexts; the collective work involves learning to engage and build consensus.


Challenges: limitation of human, financial and infrastructure capacities in government institutions at both national and local levels; weakness in the institutional positioning of key stakeholders in local contexts; the implications of the local ownership for those leading actions to prevent and eliminate child labor.
Next Steps:

The government will continue to strengthen the local Committees to build consistency within the existing decentralized public policy. It will also encourage the creation of new committees in the territories which it has not yet been formalized and monitor the processes to support the sustainability of the Committees.



21) Growing up protected: A Handbook for the Protection of Child Workers


Period of implementation: Since 2010

Where: Chile

Main focus: private sector mobilization and education to prevent working accidents among adolescents in labour situations

Lead organization: Chilean Safety Association (ACHS) website: www.achs.cl

contact: Alejandro Rodríguez, Director de Relaciones Institucionales, ACHS, arodriguez@achs.cl



Results: 40,000 ACHS affiliated companies, 8,000 educational institutions, 10,000 adolescents benefited by the knowledge dissemination through the handbook; developed among a significant number of entrepreneurs the vision of building a culture of prevention and reduction of accidents with adolescents aged 15 to 17 years, with better understanding of their rights and responsibilities in the employment context.


Context and objective:

Developed by the Chilean Safety Association (ACHS), the private company managing the social insurance against the risk of injury, accident and occupational disease, the initiative has the objectives to promote compliance among employers with legal work conditions of adolescents between 15 and 17, to prevent accidents and illnesses that may occur with adolescents workers, and to raise awareness about the protection of the rights and responsibilities of young workers in Chile. It seeks to promote between employers and young workers of 15-17 years, the fulfillment of the legal conditions for labor, and to prevent and reduce accidents and illnesses to which they are exposed. The Growing up Protected initiative produced and disseminated information through a Manual and a Web site to mobilize leaders of enterprises in different sectors of the Chilean economy.

It was a result of two nation agreements: the 2008 one, to prioritize child labor which was signed by the President of Chile, Chilean business leaders, union leadership, the Minister of Labour and the ILO; and the joint statement between the Confederation of Production and Commerce (CPC) and the Ministry of Labor to promote public-private partnerships in pursuit of the eradication of child labor. After the signature of an agreement letter by ACHS, in 2010, it was developed the Handbook on the protection of young workers, based on evidence of significant number of accident cases recorded in the Health Centers, joining as partners the Innovacom Agency (content and design), Confederation of Production and Commerce (CPC), Covenant Global Chile, Action-CSR Corporate Social Responsibility, the National Youth Service (SENAME) Technical Schools of the National Agricultural Society (SNA), and the Lyceum of Technicians of Industry Development Society (SOFOFA).
Methodology:

The Manual for the Protection of Young Workers is 40,000 available to affiliates, and its content presents the background of adolescent work in Chile, their labour conditions and social context, the legislative framework to eradicate child labor and create conditions for the protection of young workers, the testimony of 12 civil and social stakeholders in Chile, the lines work for employers to ensure good work conditions for adolescents, materials for reference, and the list of works considered hazardous. The initiative distributed the manual in print and electronic format and hold awareness meetings with business leaders. In the portal (http://manualcrecerprotegido.achs.cl), it is explained how to access and use the Manual, and also it is provided examples of how to protect young workers, suggested actions and offered statements of various stakeholders on the issue. Furthermore, the ACHS developed a strategy for analyzing accident reports presented by Health Centers which is sent annually to employers during the international day against child labor.

To disseminate the information and promote the access of the portal, a direct contact is made with adolescents in educational institutions (including technical colleges of business associations). At least five schools are connected via "streaming" allowing greater interaction and participation of teenagers across the country. To reinforce the strategy of promoting rights and responsibilities, each year, at 12th June, during the day against child labor, educational messages to emphasize the rights and responsibilities of teenagers and employers are sent to schools.
Lessons learned:

Analysis and follow-up reports and accidents of young workers in the health centers of ACHS make visible the dimension of the problem and the urgency of taking measures to address it; direct communications between entrepreneurs and young workers impulse the creation of a culture of protection in the employment context


Challenges:

The actual number of young workers reported by ACHS member companies do not match the data that provided by the offices of the Labour Inspectorate; it has not yet be developed a strategy for the characterization of young workers, and the only information available about them is when there is a report of an accident in the Health Centers ACHS; limitation in technical and financial resources


Next Steps:

The main factors to continue the initiative are the institutional strength of ACHS, its strong link with industry, the decision to maintain a awareness strategy to reduce accidents of young workers and the relationship of the objectives of the ACHS strategic plans. It has been also provided technical assistance to Paraguay for the adaptation and development of the Protected Growing Handbook in that country. For the future and to replicate it, it is key to have information on the profile of young workers, to strengthen interagency and intersectoral coordination and to continue the training in prevention and protection.



22) Strengthening family projects to improve the living conditions of communities in emerald mining areas


Period of implementation: 2009 – 2011

Where: Colombia

Main focus: Social protection of children and families in mining areas

Lead organization: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (http://www.oim.org.co/)

Results: Identification and involvement of 300 families from the mining sector in psychosocial care; 147 families selected for support actions with direct impact on 338 children and adolescents; improved quality of educational services, including training of teachers and increased awareness amongst children and adolescents in 14 educational centres and 13 community homes.

Context and objective: Boyacá tops the list of Colombian Departments with the highest index of child labour. The situation is especially critical with regards to children and adolescents engaged in mining, which is recognized as a worst form of child labor in the ILO Convention 182, ratified by Colombia through Law 704 of 2001. One of main sources of income in the Boyacá region comes from emeralds, which to a large extent is being extracted by children and adolescents. The target population of this project is those children and adolescents in the municipalities of Muzo and San Pablo de Borbur who are working in the artisanal mining industry and those at risk of becoming engaged in the worst forms of child labour, as well as their families. The overall objective of this project is to strengthen and support these families to restore their rights and improve their living conditions.
The project was implemented by OIM through strategic partnerships with the Colombian Family Welfare Institute (ICBF) – coordinator of the National Family Welfare System and promoter of the restoration of the rights of children and adolescents in Colombia – and the National Federation of Colombian Emeralds (FEDESMERALDAS), which represents the business sectors of the emeralds and their corporate social responsibilities.
Methodology: The project was implemented through the following three strategic lines of action:

  • Psychosocial care, which included identification and inclusion of vulnerable families and their children in psychosocial care families, following guidelines of inclusion and attention designed by the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare (ICBF). Psychosocial workshops were conducted with the beneficiary families around issues such as strengthening of emotional bonds, abused children, prevention of substance use, domestic violence, working environment, sexual exploitation, strengthening of values and life-skills. Furthermore, recreational activities were conducted with children and adolescents.

  • Family production initiatives, through which new ways of generate revenue, other than mining, were identified and explored together with the community. Through this initiative, business- and investments plans were tailored to the needs and interest of 147 families. These efforts were complimented by workshops on income generation, customer service, teamwork, associations and cooperatives, motivation and basic accounting (among other issues).

  • Quality improvement of educational services in 14 educational centers and 13 community homes located in the target area included two workshops with teachers that addressed the causes and consequences of child labour and provided tools and technics for prevention. Workshops were also held with students from different grades to address and discuss issues about the implications of child labour as well as with parents of children attending community homes, highlighting and raising awareness about the important roles that they have as parents.


Lessons learned: The partnerships between private and public institutions as well as with international organizations enhance social progress in generating development projects to communities. Also, strong local management and social mobilization are key aspects that help to strengthen the strategy and provide a sense of ownership.
Challenges: Child labor is widely accepted by a large part of the community as part of the development process of children and adolescents rather than a violation of their rights. Workshops, lectures, visits, recreational activities, and other interventions with families have been fundamental for the efforts of transforming such cultural patterns.
Next steps: There has been an increased commitment, capacity and awareness among local authorities and other actors (including families and children), which in turn promotes a longer-term-impact with a successive change of socio-cultural patterns.

23) ABK2 Initiative: Take Every Action for Children Now (TEACh Now)




Period of implementation: 2007 to 2011

Where: Philippines

Main focus: Education and Capacity Development

Lead organization: World Vision Philipines (http://worldvision.org.ph/)

Results: increased awareness and improved attitudes of stakeholders on the problem of child labor and the importance of education; 16,892 children withdrawn and 13,579 children prevented from hazardous work; improved children’s school attendance, increased enrollment rates and decreased dropout rates; Establishment of a variety of institutional partnerships and mobilized individuals; passage facilitated of 36 policies and 101 ordinances such as the children’s welfare code, in almost 85 percent of the 40 covered cities and municipalities; livelihood opportunities (capital build-up and skills development trainings) made available to 3,054 families.

Context and objective: Statistics from 2001 showed that 4 million Filipino children aged 5-17 years old were economically active, 2.4 million of whom were exposed to hazards, and many of whom were working in the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Baseline studies of 2008 further confirmed the high prevalence of children—both in and out of school—engaged in exploitive labor in urban and rural areas. In focus group discussions and key informant interviews, children, parents, teachers, and community and government leaders identified the following as the major determinants of their engagement in exploitive labor: 1) the need to earn additional family income; 2) lack of awareness regarding laws on child labor; and 3) belief that education does not immediately contribute to family livelihood.
The ABK2 Initiative is implemented by World Vision Philipines and its associates, ChildFund Philippines, and Educational Research and Development Assistance Foundation, Inc. (ERDA). Through the ABK2 Initiative, they supported the Government of the Philippines in achieving its national goal of a 75 percent reduction in the number of children in exploitive labor by the year 2015. The ABK2 initiative aims to reach this goal by improving the quality, relevance and accessibility of educational services, through increasing awareness on the risks and losses of human potential caused by the Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL), and by developing the capacities of families, community members and governments to identify and address child labor problems in their communities.
Methodology: The project design responds to the results of the baseline survey of 2008 as well as documentation and consolidated reports from ABK1. The approach initiated under the first phase of ABK and continued by ABK2 is based on capacity building and partnership at community and government levels, revolving around a core component of education service provision to children engaged in or at risk working in the worst forms of child labor as defined by ILO Convention 182.
Building on the established networks developed through ABK1, the ABK2 Initiative continued to forge partnerships with the Department of Education (DepEd) and the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) by facilitating new Memorandum of Agreements (MOAs). The agreements primarily focused on collaborative and effective work on the strategic direction of the Philippine Program Against Child Labor (PPACL), which lays out the blueprint for the country in reducing child labor 75 percent by 2015. The ABK2 project was thus jointly implemented through the concerted efforts of its various stakeholders and partners with the end in view of eliminating child labor and promoting the importance of education for all children.
The project was built up around the following activities:

  • Direct Education Assistance to ABK2 Children, which includes provision of annual direct educational assistance in the form of school supplies (bags, notebooks, pencils, papers, rulers, scissors, paste, crayons, etc.), school uniforms, shoes, and part of the miscellaneous school fees that were directly paid to schools, for 30,983 children as well as vocational or technical courses for 337 high school graduates and community-based literacy programs for out-of-school children and youth

  • Catch-Up-Programme, a community effort that helps “struggling learners” having a hard time catching up either due to excessive absences or the inability to study at home because of work demands and other concerns.

  • Organization, capacity building and mobilization of community-based social structures, including Community Watch Groups, Child Labor Education Task Forces, Barangay Children’s Associations, and Barangay Council for the Protection of Children. Capacity building approaches included: Leadership Development, Monitoring & Evaluation, Enterprise Development, and Financial Recording.

  • Organizing, strengthening and mainstreaming the Barangay Children’s Association (BCA): Children’s participation, which helped children identify their roles and responsibilities in responding to and taking action on child labor issues.

  • Provision of Livelihood Opportunities, including training and provision of small capital for beneficiaries to start a business.

  • Awareness raising, which was integrated into fairly all the different approaches of the ABK2, including trainings and orientations on child labor for parents of beneficiaries, integrating child labor in classroom teaching, training child leaders as peer advocates, advocating the cause with barangay captains and councils, training teachers as advocates, and raising the profile of the issue through mass media campaigns (TV plugs and radio programs) and holding special events such Anti–Child Labor Award for Teachers (ACLAT) and World Day Against Child Labor Events. Efforts to increase awareness were also integrated into the education about child labor in school lessons and orientations for parents on schools and barangay captains.

  • Monitoring, including two major types of monitoring: a child beneficiary monitoring system, designed to collect a wide range of information on the education and work status of child beneficiaries; and monitoring data and surveys conducted for the performance monitoring indicators.

  • Participatory evaluation / Stakeholder Summits, which brought all project stakeholders together well before the project close, through a series of Island-Wide Stakeholder Summits, to discuss what strategies that each stakeholder could sustain and by what means. Through a participatory action research key stakeholders (e.g., children, parents, local government officials, teachers, faith-based organizations, and other NGO partners, among others) were engaged to look back at their experiences—before, during, and after the ABK2 implementation—and to reflect on what made sense to them and what did not. Moreover, this process included documentation of practices considered exemplary by the stakeholders and development of toolkits for other implementers, which in turn will contribute to the lasting impact of the project.


Lessons learned: Making periodic assessment and evaluation sessions with each implementing agency and as a coalition through the Technical Working Group’s (TWG) regular meeting/consultation proved to be a key element to progress, as this made it possible to immediately and appropriately respond to concerns at hand and readjust programming accordingly.
Throughout the monitoring efforts, it became evident that the monitoring data not only enabled the project managers to assess the overall progress on withdrawal and prevention of children from child labor by education level, province, and associate partner, but also served to encourage and motivate the children and their parents to stay in school by the effect of children and families knowing that someone is concerned about and accompanying their situation and progress at school.
Challenges: Tough economic climate has made it challenging to get private sector support for the education of disadvantaged groups like child laborers. Yet, the commitments made by the Department of Education (DepEd) and the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) facilitated coordination and work at national and local levels, including the establishment of strategic partnership with schools, private institutions and local government units (LGUs). This generated new attitudes and perspectives, including an increased understanding among schools of the DepEd’s Open Enrollment policy, which allows child laborers to be enrolled in formal education even after the school year’s enrollment period is done.
Weather conditions also posed challenges to implementation. In the first quarter of 2010 there were series of calamities, beginning with Typhoon Ketsana, that placed several areas under a state of emergency, including project sites in Camarines Norte, Bulacan, and the National Capital Region. An emergency response was conducted by World Vision Development Foundation to provide additional school supplies for the children.
Next steps: The initiatives have been well integrated into the government policies, priorities and initiatives, such as education, poverty reduction and vocational training, building on the leadership role of local government and with strong collaboration of other institutions. Moreover, the model incorporated initiatives to include ethnic minorities and to address family livelihoods challenges. Building further on the experiences and good practices of ABK1 and 2, World Vision is currently implementing a third phase (ABK3), which focuses on children in sugarcane across 11 sugar producing provinces throughout the Philippines, with a target population of 52,000 children and 25,000 households. (For more information on ABK3, see http://abk3leap.ph/)

24) Strategy to free municipal jurisdiction sectors of child labor


Period of implementation: 2002 to 2011

Where: Ecuador

Main focus: Inspection, monitoring and legal norms on child labor in garbage dumbs.

Lead organization: Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales

website: www.relacioneslaborales.gob.ec



Results: 2,160 children and adolescents withdrawn from work in 78 districts; child labor prevention initiatives developed in 143 districts; 1.900 families receiving follow-up home visits; 221 municipalities signed letters with commitments to eliminate child labor; demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology on how to advance the prevention and eradication of the worst forms on child labour; effective intersectoral coordination between different government levels;


Context and objective:

After national agreements developed on how to operate the policy of special protection for children and

adolescents working in garbage dumps, the government's decision was to set a target to eradicate child labor municipal garbage dumps. Thus, the Labor Ministry proposes a partnership with municipalities to establish regulatory mechanisms, local surveillance and monitoring, and ensuring local public services for girls and boys. It objectives to generate and implement a methodology to prevent and eliminate child labor by identifying critical areas of municipal government responsibility, establish a set of effective actions that can be replicated to constitute a demonstration on how the government ​​can eradicate child labor in one sector.
Methodology:

The methodology includes a strong focus in specific sectors where children have been found engaged with working activities. Its primarily actions are policy implementation, identification and direct assistance to children and their families (education, health, productive enterprise) and inspection.

The process started with National Institute on Children and Families (INNFA) and ILO developing, in 2002, a proposal involving the Municipality of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas and the Fundación Desarrollo y la AutoGestión (DYA) to produce the baseline of data on working children in 20 cities of over 20,000 inhabitants. Other initiatives happened at the same time in the municipality of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, related to investments in technological improvements to waste management, implementation of productive alternatives for adults recyclers, prohibition of children at the garbage dump, and actions for restitution of rights to education and health. Until 2006, the initiative was expanded to other municipalities along with new partners (UNICEF and Fundación Telefónica). In 2007, the National Government created the policy for special protection for children and adolescents who work in garbage dumps, led by Intersectoral Political and Technical Board for Elimination of Child Labour. Thus, the baseline was expanded to reach 100 more cities with over 10,000 inhabitants and it was strengthened by the inclusion of inspection activities of the Ministry of Labor Relations. In 2009, the national government assumes the goal of eradicating child labor in dumps and 33 new towns are added to the program. Inspection services to verify the presence of children in municipal landfills became part of the Surveillance System Labor Ministry in 2010. In two weeks, inspections covered all districts in the country and legal sanctions were inflicted to those who did not impede the access of children to garbage dumps. In fact, in 2011 the work of inspection certified that there are no longer children working in garbage dumps and a system of prevention, restoration of rights and sustenance of minors outside the dumps was developed.
Strategy municipal jurisdiction sectors of child labor free order a set of actions, namely:

- Strengthening the role of the municipalities and their commitment to eradicating of child labor, including establishing measures through ordinances administrative and control the access of children to places where

working.

- Development and implementation of an intervention protocol to establish an effective system for all institutions involved in the strategy to eradicate child labor in the sector, based on the knowledge of roles of each institution in this regard. The protocol includes: a baseline as a result of the inspection work; a research on socioeconomic situation of the families and home visits; family plan with agreements to ensure school enrollment of children and adolescents; recreational activities; health care and referral to public institutions; Access to public services to the family such as housing allowance, training, support to family local production

- Development of a monitoring system that allows to track each case, implement control and monitoring measures and sanctions in case of breach of the regulations for the prevention and eradication of child labor.

- Ratification of the commitment: "Ecuador Without Child Labour" in partnership between the government and the private sector institutions.


Lessons learned:

The specific initiatives developed were an opportunity to demonstrate that it is possible to eradicate child labor and generate awareness and conviction on the part of the authorities. Prevention and eradication of child labor involves various actors and a strong coordination with State leadership is required.


Challenges:

Lack of sustainable of the public budget to guarantee progress to achieve goals.

Expansion to other settings related to the type of activity that has been targeted, to ensure that there is not a shift happening on child workforce to other trades or sectors.

The supply response of the state tends to be lower than what is required.


Next Steps:

Once it has been succeed in garbage dumps areas, the partners have progressed to reach slaugtherhousers and are now planning to go to fairs and markets. For the future, the government is aiming to develop similar strategies for child labour working in street markets and to ensure that no child laborers in Ecuador by 2016.



25) INDUS child labour Project in India


Period of implementation: from 2004 to 2007

Where: India

Main focus: Education, vocational training, income generation support and social mobilization

Lead organization: The government of India

website: http://labour.nic.in/content/division/indus.php

http://www.cbwe.gov.in/international-collaboration/indus-child-labour-project.aspx


Results: around 115,000 children were withdrawn or prevented from entering child labour through the provision of educational services or training opportunities; 9,232 families received access to micro credit from the project income generating component, it is worth pointing out that 5,770 mothers have taken up supplementary economic activities in target districts and sectors as a result of project interventions on income generation and skill upgradation; 31,214 children in the 9 - 13 age group and 14,122 children in the 5 - 8 age group were enrolled in schools; 21,250 adolescents completed vocational training programmes


Context and objective:

The 1991 census in India estimates the number of working children as 11.2 million. The causes include poverty, lack of access to quality education, gender discrimination, large family size etc. The INDUS Child Labour Project was a Technical Cooperation Project of the Government of India (GOI), Ministry of Labour and Employment and Directorate of Education, and the United States Department of Labour (USDOL), within the framework of a Joint Statement of Enhanced Indo-US Co-operation on Elimination of Child Labour. The project aimed to contribute to the prevention and elimination of hazardous child labour by enhancing the human, social and physical capacity of target communities and improving compliance with child labour policy and legislation in the target districts. ILO-IPEC´s experience in India shows that integrated and comprehensive projects, which simultaneously address several key aspects of the child labour problem such as educational and training opportunities, reliable and decent incomes for adults and adolescents in the family and awareness creation, have the best chances of success. The INDUS Child Labour Project was launched in 21 districts spread across India five states with large concentrations of children employed in hazardous industries.


Methodology:

In order to systematically withdraw, rehabilitate, prevent and progressively eliminate child labour in hazardous sectors ( brick manufacturing, stone quarrying, bidi manufacturing, footwear manufacturing, fireworks manufacturing, manufacturing of matches, silk manufacturing, lock making, brassware and glassware production), the overall approach of the project is to creat an enabling environment where children will be motivated to enrol in schools, induced to refrain from working, and households will be provided with alternatives so that they refrain from sending their children to work.


The two pillars of the approach (which address two main causes of child labour) are economic empowerment of the households at risk on the one hand, and making education strong and meaningful on the other. The project worked in collaboration with major programmes of the Government of India: the NCLPs and the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a time-bound integrated approach, which, in partnership with state governments, aims at achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education. It aims at providing useful and quality elementary education to all children in the 6-14 years' age group by 2010.
The intervention strategy of the project consisted of a comprehensive child labour elimination model that integrated nine components:

  • Conducting base line surveys to identify specific sectors as well as target children and their families;

  • Withdrawing children from hazardous sectors and provision of transitional education;

  • Strengthening public education as a measure to prevent child labour;

  • Providing vocational skills training to adolescents in the age group of 14 - 17 years;

  • Providing income generating alternatives for the families of child labourers;

  • Monitoring the impact of child labour elimination efforts by tracking each beneficiary on the one hand and developing a child labour monitoring system on the other, to capture the shifts in child labour across different sectors;

  • Advocacy and awareness raising activities to motivate employers', social partners, families and communities to undertake joint and/or separate action against hazardous child labour;

  • To undertake and encourage co-ordination and convergence of all services operating for the elimination of child labour; and

  • Raising interest towards action on hazardous child labour in other states.

Regular monitoring mechanisms were put in place and periodic review of the programme at different levels brought about corrections if things were not going according to plan. State Project Steering Committees (SPSCs) were set up in the five project states to coordinate project activities and ensure policy coherence with other ongoing initiatives in the field of child labour and education. State resource cells were established to assist the SPSCs in their functioning. The National Child Labour Project Society was responsible for implementing the project at the district levels. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan society was responsible for the implementation of the education component of the project in the states


Lessons learned:

The people who execute the change are the single most important factor on whom the success of the programme rests. The project made great strides wherever the commitment of the people was high. The community has to perceive the bureaucracy owning the programme. The District Collector, as the senior most member of the implementing team, has to make it a vital part of his or her work.When the District Collector took an active interest, people down the line were energised and motivated, and the results were there for everyone to see. Getting the employers and trade associations, labour unions, NGOs, students of regular schools and Self Help Groups involved in the project, contributes significantly to its success.
Districts that implemented well planned communication strategies and advocacy programmes to raise awareness on the issue, were successful in their plans, as well as those where a convergence of government services were built. Different departments of the government were brought to work together for a common goal the elimination of child labour.

Challenges:

The family had to give up the money the child brings in, however little it may be. The project created an environment to get parents to take their children to school and not to a brick kiln, a matchbox factory, or even someone's house for domestic work. Besides, the projecto also made all out efforts through various programmes to reach out to different sections of society, so that people came to know that employing a child is a criminal act.


Next Steps:

The implementation of the project through NCLP societies, SSA societies, civil society, employers´and workers´organizations, which are committed to the cause, ensure that the results of the project are sustained. And by engaging the grassroots in a system of monitoring the child at work and at school, the project built a most durable protection against child labour. Much of the learnings from the project have gone into formulating the Elimination of Child Labour component of the 11th Plan of the Government of India.



26) Comprehensive reintegration program for child victim of trafficking


Period of implementation: 2009 – 2011

Where: Ukraine

Main focus: Reintegration of child victims of trafficking

Lead organization: International Organization for Migration (IOM) / Implementing partner: NGO “Suchasnyk”.

Results: 227 minor Victims of Trafficking (VoTs) identified and provided with reintegration assistance, leading to improved health conditions, education, social skills, outlook for the future and prevention from being re-trafficked and exploited; enhanced capacities of staff of specialized NGOs, state shelters and boarding schools, as well as families enhanced their capacities to work with the most vulnerable children.



Context and objective: Although significant efforts have been made in Ukraine to fight human trafficking in the past decade, the phenomenon remains a serious challenge for the country. Despite a legislative and institutional base, the mechanisms for identification, referral and assistance of child victims of trafficking (VoTs) require further elaboration, and the reintegration of child VoTs remains a challenge due to its complex and long-term nature. Growing numbers of children are being identified by service providers, and with that, the need to strengthen the referral and assistance mechanisms as well as for building capacities of major service providers become pressing issues.

Children are commonly trafficked for prostitution and other types of sexual exploitation; forced labour and other types of economic exploitation; participation in criminal activities; begging; and even organ removal. The majority of minors are subject to sexual exploitation, even when they are trafficked for other purposes.

The consequences of trafficking for children are in particular severe (including a wide range of medical, psychological and social factors), requiring long-term actions of rehabilitation and reintegration, as well as careful monitoring of their situation upon completion of the course of reintegration.

In response to these challenges, and in support of existing efforts of the government of Ukraine and others, IOM implemented a project that aimed at strengthening the existing mechanism of identification, referral and assistance of child VoTs in Ukraine through capacity building and networking of service providers, meanwhile also maintaining the scope and quality of the existing direct assistance services for child VoTs. The overall focus of the project lies within the 3P-areas: protection and reintegration, prosecution and criminalization, and prevention, advocacy and capacity building.


Methodology: The 3P-approach is a multi-disciplinary approach that aims to respond to the complex nature of child trafficking and is concentrated around the following activities: Reintegration assistance to child VoTs; Comprehensive medical assistance to child VoTs; Capacity building for immediate service providers; Capacity building and networking for relevant law enforcement agencies in the sphere of combating trafficking in children; Institutionalization of best practices in the sphere of interrogating child VoTs within the system of prosecution of trafficking crime; Monitoring of state juvenile facilities; Activation of existing mechanisms for protection and referral of child VoTs; Overview and analysis of legislation on assistance to child VoTs; Case conference mechanism development and implementation; and Project monitoring and evaluation.

The project targeted the whole system of identification and referral of child VoTs in Ukraine, aiming to strengthen the existing mechanisms and addressing the current gaps. Five regions of Ukraine were selected as pilots. Children’s rights and interests were the guiding principle of any work done within this project.

Provision of all direct assistance was done on the principles of confidentiality, informed consent, gender-sensitivity, and free of charge.The assistance package offered to VoTs is holistic and customised at the

same time. In consultation with their legal guardian, a reintegration plan is developed for each child and followed with the guidance from their case managers (NGO staff). The package includes voluntary return to Ukraine; airport reception upon return to Ukraine from the country of destination; medical care, both general and specialized, provided at IOM’s Rehabilitation Centre in Kyiv, as well as in the regions of Ukraine; escort and travel assistance to final destination within Ukraine; overnight accommodation while in transit home; legal assistance with civil issues; legal consultation/representation for victims acting as witnesses in criminal cases; retrieval of lost documents such as passports or identification documents; reintegration grants to support victims for the first three months after their return; income-generating grants and employment counselling as appropriate, grants for vocational training, as well as other type of assistance on a case-by-case basis.

Progress was monitored and evaluated on an ongoing basis to ensure efforts and funds were targeting the most vulnerable areas. This was done through exchange of information with the project partner and associates, as well as other relevant stakeholders; monitoring of press after major events; timely follow up with training participants on the effect of training and relevant actions undertaken by them, including analysis of pre- and post-event surveys, in-debt interviews, quarterly follow-up and other activities; monitoring and analysis of available statistical data, particularly that on identification and referral of child VoTs; and monitoring of assisted child VoTs conducted as part of the reintegration programme. A number of monitoring measures were launched to track the influence of the project, such as monitoring of law enforcement handling of child VoT cases and monitoring of juvenile facilities. Five comprehensive monitoring visits were conducted the implementing partners in cooperation with the relevant state agencies to the regions of Ukraine to look at the general state of affairs with countering trafficking in children by all involved stakeholders and evaluate the progress and impact of the project.
Lessons learned: The project applied a mixed approach of top-down and bottom-up interventions. Lessons learned show that while the top-down approach ensures better coordination and participation in project activities of stakeholders on the local level, the bottom-up approach encourages local ownership of the project results and adjusting relevant efforts to the specifics and needs at the local level.

Moreover, following the implementation of this project, the paramount importance of advocacy and policy dialogue with the Government has become evident to gain political support to the project, hence the need and benefits of a fully-fledged negotiation strategy and of permanent (formal and non-formal) consultations.


Challenges: The Administrative reform launched in Ukraine in December 2010 brought up a number of challenges to the project, as the work of its key governmental stakeholders was disrupted and occasionally resulted in the loss of sensitized and trained staff. To overcome this challenge, IOM has re-established relations with new departments and appointed officials at key ministries to continue cooperation in the sphere of combating trafficking in children. Furthermore, to avoid the risk of overlaps/duplications and ensure optimal synergies, cross-fertilization and cost effectiveness, a participatory approach was adopted with ongoing communication and coordination with other relevant stakeholders and on-going projects.
Next steps: The mechanisms of cooperation between state and non-state organizations developed within this project have continued functioning also after project closure. In particular, the mechanism of case-conference for the provision of assistance to child VoTs has been adopted as a regular practice at the local level and does not require any additional funding for its continued application. Furthermore, project partners continue to disseminate the best practices developed through the project at the national level and are currently planning to expand the activities of this project to other regions of Ukraine.
27) Facilitation from street to school through mobile schools

Period of implementation: 2005-2006

Where: Romania

Main focus: Education focused to children living in street situations

Lead organization: Save the Children (http://www.salvaticopiii.ro/)

Results: 45 children (27 girls and 18 boys) were identified, of whom 21 were prevented from being exploited/trafficked and 24 were withdrawn from child labour, including trafficking. They gradually became involved in the activities of the Educational Centre, including educational activities and support services (counselling services, legal counselling, health care, nutrition, provision of clothes and uniforms, and hygiene products).



Context and objective: In parallel with the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) action programme of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the county of Iasi, the Mobile Schools Project was implemented from April 2005 to December 2006 by Save the Children’s Iasi branch. The initiative also formed part of the European Union’s PHARE programme.
The mobile school is an educational instrument designed for street children, who are at high risk of being economically exploited. It offers the possibility of working with groups of street children from various marginalized areas of the city and the adjacent villages. The mobile school was used as an instrument for attracting a large number of children that provided the mobile school team with the opportunity to establish a first contact with children and assess their situation and vulnerability.

The ultimate aim of the Mobile School Project is to ensure children’s right to education.


Methodology: The Mobile School Project is equipped with mobile boards that are tied together, which can be folded and used very easily in different kinds of spaces. In this way, activities for promoting and respecting children’s rights can be carried out, due to the fact that the instruments are very easily transported and assembled. The methods and techniques used include interactive role playing, socializing games, brainstorming, lectures and debates, which all aimed at stimulating children’s active participation. The advantage of the Project is the fact that it can reach isolated communities and that it is based on the children’s active involvement in the prevention programmes that are being developed. The Project can help shape skills and abilities that support the child’s school and social integration.
The educational package was developed to serve children of various levels of education and adjusted to meet the street children’s needs. This instrument is adaptable both technically and pedagogically to the various levels of education of these children. The children will learn how to write, read and count, providing them with the opportunity to make up for their educational gaps. The educational package also covers various life skills issues (including drug abuse, sexual transmitted diseases, contraceptives and juvenile delinquency) so that the children realize the dangers of living in the streets and also learn about their rights.
Lessons learned: Experience proved that the interventions which imply a forced “separation” of the child from the street environment are not effective on the long-run. The Mobile School Project gradually prepares the children for integration into the family environment, other care institutions and the school system by supporting their skills development and providing them with information that will help the children make conscious decisions regarding their futures.
Challenges: A key challenge when working with a complex target group, such as children living on the streets is to the variety of needs of these children. The Mobile School Project provides a unique service, in the sense that it focuses on the special needs of children on the streets and from marginalized communities where children are working instead of going to school.
The activities of the Project are conducted in such a way as to maintain the children’s interest while simultaneously offering them the chance to see the available alternatives to life in the streets. Children have the opportunity to discover their rights by themselves. They are able to realize that they can perform certain tasks, for which they are respected by the people around them, and that they deserve this respect. The activities carried out within the Project increase children’s self-esteem, emotional stability and strength, which will lead to their gradual integration into society.
Next steps: Following up to the implementation of this initiative, Save the Children strives to attract the most vulnerable children, suspected to be victims of trafficking and/or exploitation, to the Educational Centre run by the organization. Here services are provided according to the needs identified, such as the reduction of time spent on the streets and an increase of time spent under adult supervision. In parallel, the Educational Centre team focused on building a trusting relationship with children and their families, aiming at reducing their vulnerability and promoting social and school reintegration.




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