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Informe de la Delegación de Canadá




Sesión especial sobre el Programa Interamericano para la Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos de los Migrantes, incluyendo los Trabajadores Migrantes y sus Familias
16 de marzo de 2006

Canadá aprecia esta oportunidad para ofrecer un vistazo sobre nuestra participación y compromiso relacionados con los temas de refugiados en el hemisferio durante el último año.


Canadá defiende y destaca con firmeza la necesidad de contar con sistemas migratorios legales, ordenados y bien administrados que incluyan el respeto por los derechos humanos de los migrantes. Es evidente que la migración legal ofrece mayor protección a los migrantes. La migración irregular fomenta la vulnerabilidad, el riesgo y el abuso y Canadá defiende con ahínco los esfuerzos que se realizan para combatir los delitos transnacionales de contrabando de migrantes y la trata de personas. Además, contamos con una red de Oficiales de Inmigración Íntegros que trabajan en nuestras embajadas para identificar tendencias, prevenir movimientos migratorios irregulares y ofrecer capacitación para identificar casos de fraude. Asimismo, alentamos a todos los Estados que aún no lo han hecho, a que firmen, ratifiquen e implementen la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre Delincuencia Organizada Transnacional y sus Protocolos.

En nuestro Hemisferio, Canadá tuvo el placer de participar en la conferencia regional para las Américas de la Comisión Mundial sobre las Migraciones Internacionales que se celebró en México, en mayo de 2005. Durante esta audiencia, Canadá hizo su presentación a la Comisión Mundial sobre su enfoque con respecto a la administración de asuntos migratorios y estableció un diálogo internacional constructivo que reconoce los intereses y desafíos comunes que se presentan al abordar estos movimientos.


Canadá valora su participación en esta Conferencia Regional sobre Migración (CRM), que data desde hace once años (con México, América Central, Estados Unidos y la República Dominicana) y tuvo el placer de ejercer la Presidencia Pro-Témpore en 2005. Esta conferencia también conocida como el Proceso Puebla, reúne a los Estados para abordar el problema desde una perspectiva de intereses y preocupaciones comunes y para observar las áreas donde es posible lograr cooperación y coordinación de acciones. Canadá considera que este proceso consultivo regional es un modelo exitoso para la cooperación internacional en el área de inmigración. Este éxito se logra en gran medida gracias a la dedicación de los Estados participantes que actúan con un espíritu de participación constructiva, con iniciativas de cooperación eficaz y con resultados tangibles. (NOTA: El Salvador ocupa actualmente la Presidencia Pro Témpore de la CRM y podría describir algunas de las actividades concretas del último año – el taller de OIM-OACI sobre estandarización de documentos de viaje; el taller para considerar las directrices para la repatriación de menores víctimas de la trata de personas.)
Con respecto al tema específico de la trata de personas, Canadá ha adoptado varias medias durante el último año para mejorar nuestra capacidad de respuesta a nivel interno, regional e internacional.
De conformidad con sus obligaciones contenidas en el Protocolo de las Naciones Unidas sobre Tráfico de Personas, Canadá promulgó dos importantes leyes durante 2005, las cuales describen mejor la naturaleza de esta práctica y con ellas mejoraremos significativamente nuestra capacidad para proteger a las personas vulnerables contra este terrible delito. Se enmendó nuestro Código Penal para incluir tres nuevos delitos específicos para combatir de mejor manera el tráfico de personas al prohibir específicamente: el tráfico de personas, recibir beneficios financieros o materiales de otro tipo producidos por la trata de personas y el ocultamiento o destrucción de los documentos de viaje o de identificación para llevar a cabo un delito de tráfico de personas. Además, Canadá enmendó sus leyes para ofrecer mejor protección a las víctimas y testigos vulnerables, incluidas las víctimas de la trata de personas, mediante la ampliación del uso de componentes para la toma de testimonio – tales como pantallas, televisión en circuito cerrado y personas de apoyo. Esto podrá asistir a las víctimas a expresar sus puntos de vista y preocupaciones durante las declaraciones de testigos contra sus victimarios traficantes.
A nivel regional, Canadá participó en la reunión organizada por la OEA en Venezuela, esta semana, sobre Trata de Personas.
Canadá apoyó trabajos realizados en la región sobre prevención de la trata de personas y actividades de concienciación a través de alianzas con ONGs y organizaciones multilaterales. Por ejemplo, a través del Programa de Seguridad Humana, estamos apoyando la realización de un taller regional que se llevará a cabo la próxima semana en Costa Rica bajo los auspicios de la OIM para promover la concienciación del público y de los medios de comunicación de alto nivel y a representantes gubernamentales acerca de las cuestiones de trata de personas para desarrollar productos de concienciación para su difusión en México, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá. La Agencia Canadiense para el Desarrollo Internacional recientemente aportó financiamiento para actividades de combate al tráfico de personas en Nicaragua y Perú.
Canadá apoyó a una organización de la sociedad civil en Costa Rica (CIDEHUM) para organizar talleres en América Central con el objeto de despertar el interés del público en materia de prevención de las violaciones de los derechos humanos de los migrantes irregulares, en particular en el contexto del contrabando y tráfico de personas.
En el contexto de la protección de refugiados y el apoyo al trabajo del Alto Comisionado para los Refugiados de las Naciones Unidas (ACNUR), las autoridades canadienses y los representantes de la sociedad civil participaron en la Primera Reunión sobre Reasentamiento Solidario en las Américas, celebrada en Quito, Ecuador, durante el mes de febrero, y ofreció compartir sus experiencias con los gobiernos regionales para fortalecer la capacidad para las actividades de reasentamiento de refugiados.
Asimismo, hoy observamos complacidos algunos trabajos que se han realizado en el contexto de la Comisión para la Cooperación Laboral del Acuerdo para la Cooperación Laboral de América del Norte (ACLAN) (acuerdo anexo al NAFTA). Bajo la dirección de los Ministros de Trabajo de Canadá, Estados Unidos y México, la Comisión ha publicado una Guía de Empleo y Leyes Laborales para los Trabajadores Migrantes. Esta guía se preparó para educar a los trabajadores migrantes sobre sus derechos en los países de América del Norte. Se han distribuido copias a los trabajadores que participan en el Programa de Trabajadores Agrícolas Temporales en Canadá. La guía está disponible en español, francés e inglés en la página de la NAALC (www.naalc.org).
El próximo año también promete ser un importante momento para llamar la atención sobre el tema de los trabajadores migrantes y el vínculo que existe entre el movimiento de personas y el desarrollo. Como todos bien sabemos, Naciones Unidas auspiciará, durante dos días, el Diálogo de Alto Nivel sobre Migración Internacional y Desarrollo, en el mes de septiembre, al iniciarse el período de sesiones de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas. Canadá considera este evento como una oportunidad para un intercambio constructivo de ideas que concentren la atención en la forma en que la migración bien manejada puede contribuir al desarrollo, y en particular al logro de las Metas de Desarrollo del Milenio. Asimismo, Canadá considera positiva la programación de los eventos previos al diálogo de septiembre los cuales le prestan atención específica al Diálogo de Alto Nivel y ofrecen oportunidades para considerar asuntos y perspectivas particulares sobre este tema.
Durante el pasado mes de diciembre, Canadá participó complacido en un evento organizado por México junto con la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), el Fondo de Poblaciones y la División sobre Poblaciones de las Naciones Unidas, el cual se dedicó a la migración internacional y a las cuestiones de desarrollo en esta región.
Autoridades canadienses participaron en una sesión este mes en Nueva York, de la Comisión sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer que estudió las dimensiones de género en el contexto de la migración internacional. Delegados canadienses y un representante de la sociedad civil también participaron en un diálogo que estudió el tema de la delincuencia en materia de trata de personas desde la perspectiva de la violencia contra la mujer.
Además, estaremos participando activamente en la reunión de la CEPAL que se celebrará la próxima semana en Montevideo, Uruguay y en la reunión de la Comisión sobre Población y Desarrollo, en el mes de abril en Nueva York, la cual abordará los temas de población, migración y desarrollo.
Con respecto a las actividades concretas dirigidas específicamente a la situación de los trabajadores migrantes temporales, Canadá está estudiando activamente la posibilidad de organizar un taller sobre trabajadores.
.

ANNEXO IV

CONSEJO PERMANENTE DE LA OEA/Ser.G

ORGANIZACIÓN DE LOS ESTADOS AMERICANOS CP/CAJP-2323/06 add. 3 rev. 2

4 abril 2006

COMISIÓN DE ASUNTOS JURÍDICOS Y POLÍTICOS Original: Textual
PRESENTACIONES DEL CUARTO GRUPO DURANTE LA

SESIÓN ESPECIAL SOBRE EL PROGRAMA INTERAMERICANO PARA LA PROMOCIÓN Y PROTECCIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS DE LOS MIGRANTES, INCLUYENDO LOS TRABAJADORES MIGRANTES Y SUS FAMILIAS

16 de marzo de 2006

Salón de las Américas

Washington, D.C.

PRESENTATIONS OF THE FOURTH GROUP AT THE

special meeting on the Inter-American Program for

the Promotion and Protection of the Human Rights of

Migrants, Including Migrant Workers and Their Families

March 16, 2006



hall of the Americas

Washington, D.C.



Presentación de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo


Presentation by the International Labour Organization



International Labour Organization

Route des Morillons 4

1211 Geneva 22

Switzerland www.ilo.org



THE PROTECTION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS

OF MIGRANT WORKERS:

THE ILO PERSPECTIVE
An ILO Briefing Note for the

OAS Consultation on Migrants Workers Rights
Washington, DC, 16-17 March 2006

At the beginning of the 21st Century, 175 million people, 2.9 percent of the world’s population, are living outside their countries of citizenship. This population would constitute the world’s fifth largest country if put in one territory.


Half of this population, some 86.5 million, is economically active, that is to say employed, self-employed or otherwise active in remunerative activity. Across the Americas, this number is provisionally estimated at 23 million for the year 2000 by ILO.11
We can say that most adult migrants of working age are involved in the world of work, given that children and aged people are included in that total. In the context of the challenges of globalization, issues of protection of migrant workers are fundamental to good governance, decent work and social cohesion.

A. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION
Growing economic interdependence of states has been a widely acknowledged component of globalisation. However, its effect on international population movements is less easy to generalize. According to a recent ILO study, put it, evidence points to increasing migration pressures in many parts of the world, as many developing countries face serious social and economic dislocation associated with persistent poverty, growing unemployment, loss of traditional trading patterns, and what has been termed a ‘growing crisis of economic security.
As ILO Director-General, Juan Somavia put it, if you look at globalization from the point of view of peoples’ concerns, it single biggest failure is its inability to create jobs where people live. In sum, migration pressures on the “supply side” are increasing as possibilities for employment and economic survival are reduced.
On the other side, demand for migrant labour is also increasing. Demographic trends, notably population declines and ageing work forces in industrialized countries mean that immigration is becoming an increasingly important option to address changing labour force composition and needs and future economic and social performance.
Already, growing competition for highly educated specialists in expanding service sectors has resulted in a significant rise in skilled labour migration. Simultaneously, the global efforts to fill shunned “3-D jobs” and maintain economic competitiveness produce a continuous demand for cheap and low-skilled migrant labour in many sectors of the world economy.
It is often said that, migrant labour fills the “three-D” jobs: dirty, dangerous and degrading. Migrant labour has long been utilized in developed and under-developed economies as a low cost means to sustain economic enterprises and sometimes, entire sectors that are only marginally viable or competitive. Today, migrant labour ensures low cost agricultural produce, domestic service, cheap construction labour, and services in the “sex industry” in many countries.
The persistence of dual labour markets under globalization is expanding the number of precarious jobs which national workers are reluctant to take. Small and medium size companies and labour–intensive economic sectors do not have the option of relocating operations abroad. Responses include downgrading of manufacturing processes, deregulation, and flexibilization of employment, with increased emphasis on cost-cutting measures and subcontracting.

Labour of irregular migrants is resorted to reduce cost of production, since they are willing to work for inferior salaries, for short periods in production peaks, or to take physically demanding and hazardous jobs. This is true today in the Americas as anywhere else in the world.

Legally unprotected, migrant labour, therefore, is an attractive instrument for maintaining competitiveness. This is, however, at the expense of formal protections of workplace safety, health, minimum wage and other standards.

B. THE PROTECTION OF MIGRANT WORKERS
How is protection of migrant workers in the Americas to be addressed in the face of these challenges?
Two statements are worth underlining:
1) Migration policy and practice can only be viable and effective when they are based on a firm foundation of legal norms, and thus operate under the rule of law.
2) The necessary framework for national law on migration is amply laid out in the two ILO conventions on labour migration, the ILO Migration for Employment Convention of 1949 (No. 97) and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) together with the 1990 International Convention on the Protection of Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. These three instruments comprise an international charter on labour migration providing a broad normative framework covering treatment of migrant workers and inter-State cooperation on regulating migration.
Recognizing the sovereign right of States over their migration policies, three fundamental notions characterize the protection in existing international law for migrant workers and members of their families:


  1. Equality of treatment between regular migrant workers and nationals in the realm of employment and work.

  2. Core universal human rights apply to all migrants, regardless of status. This was established implicitly and unrestrictedly in ILO Convention 143 of 1975 and later delineated explicitly in the 1990 Convention. It is also a principle of international human rights law.

  3. The broad array of international labour standards providing protection in treatment and conditions at work, including in safety, health, maximum hours, minimum remuneration, non-discrimination, freedom of association, maternity, apply to all workers. This notion was most recently upheld in a recent Opinion issued by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.

Elaboration of specific international normative instruments on migrant workers dates to 1920s. A first international treaty addressing treatment of foreign workers was established under ILO auspices in 1931. However, the economic and political turmoil that built up into World War II precluded promotion and adoption by more than a handful of States.


In 1949, the year after adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and two years before establishment of the 1951 International Convention on the Status of Refugees, the first widely implemented instrument on migrant workers was adopted by the ILO, and subsequently ratified by an important number of both host and home States of migrants in the 1950s and 1960s.
The ILO Migration for Employment Convention of 1949 (No. 97) established equal treatment between nationals and regular migrants in areas such as recruitment procedures, living and working conditions, access to justice, tax and social security regulations. The ILO Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention of 1975 (No. 143) took law on international migration further by establishing norms to reduce exploitation and trafficking of migrants while insuring protections for irregular migrants, and to facilitate integration of regular migrants in host societies.
The content of ILO Conventions 97 and 143 formed the basis for drafting the 1990 International Convention, which expanded and extended recognition of economic, social, cultural and civil rights of migrant workers rights. This Convention is characterized as one of the seven fundamental human rights instruments that define basic, universal human rights and ensure their explicit extension to vulnerable groups world-wide.12
Eight points describe the importance of these three Conventions:
1 They establish comprehensive “values-based” definitions and legal bases for national policy and practice regarding non-national migrant workers and their family members. They thus serve as tools to encourage States to establish or improve national legislation in harmony with international standards.
2 They lay out a comprehensive agenda for national policy and for consultation and cooperation among States on labour migration policy formulation, exchange of information, providing information to migrants, orderly return and reintegration, etc.

3 The 1990 International Convention further establishes that migrant workers are more than labourers or economic entities; they are social entities with families and accordingly have rights. It reinforces the principles in ILO migrant worker Conventions on equality of treatment with nationals of states of employment in a number of legal, political, economic, social and cultural areas.
4 ILO Convention 143 and the 1990 Convention include provisions intended to prevent and eliminate exploitation of migrants.
5 ILO Convention 143 and the 1990 Convention explicitly address unauthorized or clandestine movements of migrant workers, and call for resolving irregular or undocumented situations, in particular through international cooperation.
6. These Conventions also resolve the lacunae of protection for non-national migrant workers and members of their families in irregular status and in informal work by providing norms for national legislation of receiving states and their own states of origin, including minimum protections for undocumented or unauthorized migrant workers.
7 While the three Conventions address migrant workers, implementation of their provisions would provide a significant measure of protection for other migrants in vulnerable situations, such as victims of trafficking.
8 The extensive, detailed and complementary text contained in these instruments provides specific normative language that can be incorporated directly into national legislation, reducing ambiguities in interpretation and implementation across diverse political, legal and cultural contexts.

C. ELEMENTS FOR A POLICY AGENDA
International dialogue and consultation on migration has increasingly focused in recent years on identifying common approaches and means for cooperation among States in regulating what is by definition a phenomena requiring international cooperation. A decade ago, delegates of some 160 countries agreed upon a comprehensive common agenda in the chapter on migration of the Plan of Action adopted by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. More recently, regional migration dialogues—notably the Puebla and Lima processes in the Americas-- and the Berne Initiative’s International Agenda for Migration Management have elaborated common approaches.

An essential recent contribution was the adoption by resolution, at the 2004 International Labour Conference in Geneva, of the Conclusions of a general discussion on migrant workers. The Conclusions provided for a Plan of Action on migrant workers. They outline a comprehensive approach to regulating labour migration from a rights based approach in the context of labour market and employment considerations. Especially significant was the adoption of the resolution by consensus by ministerial level government representatives and leadership of trade union and employer federations from the 177 ILO member States. Following this Plan of Action, the ILO subsequently drafted a comprehensive Mulilateral Framework for Labour Migration from a rights-based approach that takes into account labour market concerns and sovereignty of States. This non-binding framework was adopted last November by an ILO Tripartite Meeting of Experts. It is submitted to the Governing Body of the ILO for final approval in March 2006.

Taking into account the 2004 International Labour Conference resolution, the framework together with provisions of the Berne Initiative’s International Agenda for Migration Management as well as the report of the Global Commission on International Migration, eight main components of a labour migration policy agenda required to ensure that migration benefits host and home countries and the migrants themselves may be identified:
1) A standards-based foundation for comprehensive national labour migration policies and practices.

As noted above, the three instruments comprising an international charter on migration provide the normative framework and specific model legislative language required to establish a basis for national policy. 76 different States have now ratified one or more of these three complementary standards.13 A major point of establishing rights and legislative policy standards is to ensure social legitimacy and accountability, only guaranteed by a policy foundation in the rule of law.


2) An informed and transparent labour migration policy and administration

Immigration practice must respond to measured, legitimate needs, taking into account domestic labour concerns as well. Such a system must rely on regular labour market assessments to identify and respond to current and emerging needs for workers, high and low skilled. Policy and practice will need to address such areas as awareness raising, supervision of recruitment, administration of admissions, training of public service and law enforcement officials, recognition of educational equivalencies, provision of social and health services, labour inspection, rights restoration and recovery for victims of trafficking, and other areas.


3) Institutional mechanisms for dialogue, consultation and cooperation

Labour migration policy can only be credible, viable and sustainable to the extent it takes into account the interests, concerns and experience of the most-directly affected stakeholders. Key stakeholders are the social partners: the employers and businesses that provide employment and the trade unions –worker organizations—representing the interests of workers, both migrants and nationals. Labour ministries need to have a key role. Of course, consultation and policy-making must also take into account the multiple concerned ministries and agencies within government as well as concerned civil society bodies and certainly migrants themselves.


4) Enforcement of minimum national employment norms in all sectors of activity

Preventing exploitation of labour migrants, criminalizing abuse of persons that facilitates trafficking, and discouraging irregular employment requires enforcement of clear national minimum standards for protection of workers, national and migrant, in employment. ILO Conventions on occupational safety and health, against forced labour, and on discrimination provide minimum international norms for national legislation. A necessary complement is monitoring and inspection in such areas as agriculture, construction, domestic work, the sex industry and other sectors of ‘irregular’ employment, to prevent exploitation, to detect forced labour, and to ensure minimal decent work conditions for all.


5) Gender sensitive labour migration measures

The feminization of labour migration and the prevalence of abuse of women migrants require recognizing gender equality as integral to the process of policy-making, planning and programme delivery at all levels.


6) A Plan of Action against discrimination and xenophobia

Discrimination and xenophobic hostility against migrants are serious challenges to governance and social cohesion in every region of the world. ILO research has found discrimination rates of 35 per cent against regular immigrant workers- unlawful discrimination- across Western Europe. The 2001 World Conference in Durban advanced the ICPD agenda on migration by defining a comprehensive and viable plan of action specifically to combat discrimination and xenophobia against migrants at national, regional and global levels, based on common experience from different regions.



7) Linking Migration and Development in Policy and Practice

Migration continues to generate significant contributions to both development and social progress and welfare in home and host countries alike. However, such contributions can be enhanced by a broad array of policy measures ranging from reducing costs and constraints on transfer of migrant workers’ remittances to providing accessible mechanisms for regular migration and recognition of employment contributions of all migrant workers.


8) International Consultation and Cooperation

Formalized mechanisms of regular dialogue and cooperation among States-- including participation of concerned stakeholders-- are essential in all regions. Dialogue and cooperation are necessary to operationalize regimes for free circulation of labour/persons across regional economic integration initiatives in several world regions including the Andean Community and Mercosur in the Americas, as well as the East Africa Community, the Economic Community of West African States.

C. REINFORCING THE MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT NEXUS
Current experience shows that migrant worker protection is an integral and fundamental basis for ensuring that labour migration contributes to development, both in countries of origin and destination.
Migrant workers are actors in development both in host and home countries. They contribute skills, labour, knowledge and initiative to progress of host countries. They also make major contributions to home countries with their remittances, which contribute to improving human capital and local economies through expenditures on improving housing, schooling, healthcare, and nutrition of family members and entire communities.
However, since labour is not a commodity, as stated by the Constitution of the ILO, it is essential to emphasize that the migration-development nexus must be constructed on a human rights-based approach.
Social and labour conditions of migrant workers and the degree of integration of migrants determine the levels and extent of economic and social contributions they make to social and economic welfare in host countries. Specifically, the conditions of migrant workers directly affect the level and nature of their contributions to social welfare, human capital formation, and development in countries of origin.
While protection of human rights of all migrants is a legal, political and ethical imperative in its own right –regardless of economic, financial or other considerations—protection of migrant workers, preventing discrimination, ensuring equality of treatment, and enhancing integration are demonstrably essential measures to ensuring that migration indeed contributes substantially and positively to development—economic and social, in host and home countries alike.
In this aspect, international labour law provisions regarding rights to organize and collective bargaining of all migrant workers are especially relevant. All 178 member States of the ILO, by virtue of their membership and the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, are bound to uphold the legal standards contained in the eight fundamental International Labour Conventions, which bear on freedom of association and collective bargaining, the prohibition of forced labour, equality and non-discrimination and the effective abolition of child labour. According to the jurisprudence of the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, these conventions apply to all workers, including migrants, irrespective of their status.
On its part, the International Labour Conference established that all International Labour Standards apply to all workers, regardless of nationality or status, unless otherwise explicitly stated.

This jurisprudence was affirmed and strengthened in the Americas by the opinion of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights of 17 September 2003 which clearly reinforces the application of international labour standards to non-national workers, including those in irregular status.14


“The Court found that non-discrimination and the right to equality are jus cogens, applicable to all residents regardless of immigration status. Non-discrimination and the right to equality, the Court said, dictate that States cannot use immigration status to restrict the employment or labor rights of unauthorized workers, giving unauthorized workers inter alia equal rights to social security (see paragraph 157). The Court acknowledged that governments have the right (within the bounds of other applicable human rights norms) to deport individuals and to refuse to offer jobs to people without employment documents. However, the Court said, once the employment relationship is initiated, unauthorized workers become rights holders entitled to the full panoply of labor and employment rights available to authorized workers”.15
In its conclusions, "The Court decides unanimously, that:
“The migrant quality of a person cannot constitute justification to deprive him of the enjoyment and exercise of his human rights, among them those of labour character. A migrant, by taking up a work relation, acquires rights by being a worker that must be recognized and guaranteed, independent of his regular or irregular situation in the State of employment. These rights are a consequence of the labour relationship."

Conclusions
Accommodating labour migration in the context of inevitably greater diversity and social change requires implementing a policy framework that assures respect for migrants’ rights, dignity and equality of treatment in the practice of States and societies.
This requires adhering to basic international human and labour rights standards, addressing labour market needs and composition, ensuring decent work opportunities for all, enacting legislation and measures to combat discrimination and promote integration, and implementing accompanying practical measures.

In the Americas, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela have ratified ILO Conventions 97 and/or 143 on migration for employment and/or the 1990 International Convention on migrant workers. Argentina and Paraguay have signed the 1990 Convention, the preliminary step to ratification.

Application of these standards together with the new international frameworks for migration management can place technical cooperation at the service of implementing the best principles and practices for regulating international migration.

As the Conclusions of the 2004 International Labour Conference highlighted, Governments, employers’ and workers’ organization and the ILO, together with parliamentarians and civil society organizations have fundamental roles to play in assuring a rights-based approach to international labour migration.



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